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Kevin Patrick, Michael Pratt and Robert E. Sallis

Background:

Healthcare professionals are influential sources of health information and guidance for people of all ages. However healthcare providers do not routinely address physical activity (PA). Engaging health professionals in a national plan for physical activity will depend upon whether proven strategies can be found to promote PA within clinical settings.

Methods:

The literature on promoting PA in healthcare settings was reviewed, as were recommendations from healthcare organizations and evidence-gathering entities about whether and how PA should be promoted in healthcare.

Key recommendations:

Evidence is mixed about whether interventions based in healthcare settings and offered by healthcare providers can improve PA behaviors in patients. Brief stand-alone counseling by physicians has not been shown to be efficacious, but office-based screening and advice to be active, followed by telephone or community support for PA has proven effective in creating lasting PA behavior improvement. Healthcare delivery models that optimize the organization of services across clinical and community resources may be very compatible with PA promotion in health care. Because of the importance of PA to health, healthcare providers are encouraged to consider adding PA as a vital sign for each medical visit for individuals aged 6 years and older.

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Laura A. Esparza, Katherine S. Velasquez and Annette M. Zaharoff

Background:

Physical inactivity and related health consequences are serious public health threats. Effective strategies to facilitate and support active-living opportunities must be implemented at national, state, and local levels. San Antonio, Texas, health department officials launched the Active Living Council of San Antonio (ALCSA) to engage the community in developing a 3- to 5-year plan to promote active living.

Methods:

A steering committee set preliminary ALCSA aims and established a multisector membership structure modeled after the US National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP). ALCSA adopted governance standards, increased knowledge of physical activity and health, and engaged in an 18-month collaborative master plan writing process.

Results:

ALCSA selected overarching strategies and evidence-based strategies for each societal sector and adapted strategies to the local context, including tactics, measures of success, and timelines. Community and expert engagement led to a localized plan reflecting national recommendations, the Active Living Plan for a Healthier San Antonio.

Conclusion:

Multisector collaborations among governmental agencies and community organizations, which were successfully developed in this case to produce the first-ever local adaptation of the NPAP, require clearly defined expectations. Lessons learned in ALCSA’s organizational and plan development can serve as a model for future community-driven efforts to increase active living.

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Nicolas Fabre, Stéphane Perrey, Loïc Arbez and Jean-Denis Rouillon

Purpose:

This study aimed (1) to determine whether paced breathing (synchronization of the expiration phase with poling time) would reduce the metabolic rate and dictate a lower rate of perceived exertion (RPE) than does spontaneous breathing and (2) to analyze the effects of paced breathing on poling forces and stride-mechanics organization during roller-ski skating exercises.

Methods:

Thirteen well-trained cross-country skiers performed 8 submaximal roller-skiing exercises on a motorized driven treadmill with 4 modes of skiing (2 skating techniques, V2 and V2A, at 2 exercise intensities) by using 2 patterns of breathing (unconscious vs conscious). Poling forces and stride-mechanics organization were measured with a transducer mounted in ski poles. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was continuously collected. After each bout of exercise RPE was assessed by the subject.

Results:

No difference was observed for VO2 between spontaneous and paced breathing conditions, although RPE was lower with paced breathing (P < .05). Upper-limb cycle time and recovery time were significantly (P < .05) increased by paced breathing during V2A regardless of the exercise intensity, but no changes for poling time were observed. A slight trend of increased peak force with paced breathing was observed (P = .055).

Conclusion:

The lack of a marked effect of paced breathing on VO2 and some biomechanical variables could be explained by the extensive experience of our subjects in cross-country skiing.

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W. Neil Widmeyer, Lawrence R. Brawley and Albert V. Carron

Although group size has been one of the most frequently examined small-group variables, it has rarely been studied in sport. In Study 1 the effects of number of team members on cohesion and performance were examined. Teams of 3, 6, and 9 members participated in a 3-on-3 basketball league. Discriminant function analyses indicated that team size was related to pre-and postseason task cohesion and postseason social cohesion. Study 2 determined effects of action-unit size (number from one team on the field of action) on enjoyment and cohesion. Relationships between these outcomes and five more immediate outcomes were also investigated. As predicted, enjoyment and cohesion decreased as size increased. This decrease was also observed for the more immediate outcomes of exercise/fatigue, influence/responsibility, and organization/strategy whereas feelings of crowding increased with size. The best predictor of enjoyment was exercise/fatigue in smaller units and reduced influence/responsibility in large units. Organization/strategy was the best predictor of cohesion for all action-unit sizes.

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Katharina Diehl, Ansgar Thiel, Stephan Zipfel, Jochen Mayer, Alexia Schnell and Sven Schneider

The authors’ aim was to examine the prevalence of (daily) dietary-supplement (DS) use among elite adolescent athletes and to differentiate use by different types of DS according to their function. Data were analyzed for associations between users of these DS types, sociodemographic, sport-specific characteristics, and opinion on the need for DS. In addition, sources of supply and information were examined. In the framework of the GOAL Study, 1,138 German elite adolescent athletes (14–18 yr) answered questions about DS. The data were analyzed to identify groups at risk for using DS after a classification by supplemental function. Of the young athletes, 91.1% reported DS use during the previous month. (Daily) DS use was significantly associated with sex, kind of sport, and the weekly duration of sporting activity. Furthermore, some athletes were required to use DS by their sporting organization. DS use was more likely in these athletes than in those whose sporting organizations had no such requirement. Overall, DS with short- and long-term supplemental function were mostly associated with the use of magnesium. However, DS with medium-term muscle-building function played an important role among daily users. The main source of information about DS was coaches; main source of supply was parents. Professional education is urgently needed, as 9 out of 10 athletes used DS, and strong positive opinions toward the use of DS were present, particularly in the DS users.

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Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia and Ashley Stirling

, & DeSouza, 2012 ). Organizational polices, the ways that programs are designed and delivered, and the nature and quality of the interactions that youth athletes have with coaches, parents, and peers all influence the optimization of positive development outcomes in the sport domain ( Fraser-Thomas et

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Beth Steel, P. Chelladurai and Barbara A. Brown

Gender differences in managerial aspirations and managerial potential have been advanced as possible explanations for the structuring of organizations along gender lines, with women concentrated in lower level jobs and under-represented in managerial positions. These hypothesized gender differences were examined in a sample of male and female physical education and non-physical education students. Analysis of variance results showed that the effects of gender, faculty, or their interaction on managerial aspirations were not significant. The main effects of aspiration level, faculty, and gender on the set of managerial potential variables were significant. Aspirants scored higher than nonaspirants on self-assurance, decisiveness, and need for dominance. Non-physical education students scored higher on need for dominance than did physical education students. Males were higher in need for autonomy and need for dominance, while females were higher in decisiveness.

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Heidi L. Keller, Stephen E. Tolly and Patty S. Freedson

The sport of wrestling often encourages participants to engage in extreme weight loss practices in order to compete in a weight class one to three weight categories below normal weight. This review discusses the prevalence of the problem, methods wrestlers use to accomplish weight loss, and the health and performance consequences of rapid weight loss, with particular emphasis on weight cycling and minimal safe wrestling weight assessment. Some useful and practical recommendations for minimizing extreme weight loss practices are presented. Several state wrestling associations have adjusted their rules and regulations based on recommendations by organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine to reduce the prevalence of the problem. Nevertheless, extreme weight loss continues to be a concern among health professionals, particularly with regard to health and performance.

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Daniela Mattos, Joshua Kuhl, John P. Scholz and Mark L. Latash

The concept of motor equivalent combinations of arm muscles, or M-modes, was investigated during reaching to insert a pointer into a cylindrical target with and without an elbow perturbation. Five M-modes across 15 arm/scapula muscles were identified by principal component analysis with factor extraction. The relationship between small changes in the M-modes and changes in the position/orientation of the pointer were investigated by linear regression analyses. The results revealed a motor equivalent organization of the M-modes for perturbed compared with nonperturbed reaches, both with respect to hand position and orientation, especially in the first 100-ms postperturbation. Similar findings were obtained for motor equivalence computed based on changes in the joint configuration, although the kinematically defined motor equivalence was stronger for pointer orientation. The results support the hypothesis that the nervous system organizes muscles into M-modes and flexibly scales M-mode activation to preserve stable values of variables directly related to performance success.

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Sondra G. Siegel, T. Richard Nichols and Timothy C. Cope

Cutaneous reflexes have been described primarily according to their actions in the flexion/extension plane. It is shown here, by measuring electromyography and isometric force in decerebrate cats, that ankle muscles are activated in relation to their actions in the abduction/adduction plane during sural nerve (SNR) and crossed-extension (XER) reflexes. Ankle adductors (tibialis posterior, extensor digitorum longus, and flexors digitorum and hallucis longus) were active in XER, but not in SNR. Muscles producing ankle abduction (medial and lateral gastrocnemii and peroneus longus and brevis) were often activated in both reflexes, and medial gastrocnemius and peroneus longus were consistently more strongly activated in SNR than in XER. This differential pattern of muscle activation results in greater abduction torque at the ankle in SNR than in XER. These data demonstrate reflex organization in relation to the multidirectional torque generated by individual muscles.