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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

activities Beam et al. (2015 ) 10 male cyclists RDBPCC Cycling: warm-up + 30 min at 60% peak power output Dextrose (75 g); dextrose + caff (5 mg/kg BM); dextrose + green coffee bean extract (10 mg/kg BM = 5 mg/kg chlorogenic acid) NS effects on postexercise blood glucose and insulin, AUC curve, and Matsuda

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

administration compared with placebo. 6 An antifatigue effect of HRW ingestion (2 L·d −1 for 2-wk preexercise) during intermittent cycling was also reported by Da Ponte et al, 9 who showed a 7.4% attenuation in the decline of peak power output from the sixth to the ninth of 10 sprints. Similarly, Aoki et al 7

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Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

-up; VO 2 max, maximal aerobic power. Statistical Analyses Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Fisher’s least significant difference post hoc tests when appropriate was used to assess TTE, peak power output, VO 2 , submaximal RPE, and both peak and submaximal lactate concentration between the

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

mass-sprint finish. To date, road cycling sprints have not been extensively examined. 1 – 5 It appears that to be competitive in a sprint, male cyclists are required to produce high peak power outputs (eg, 13.9–20.0 W·kg −1 , 4 989–1443 W 1 , 4 ) over durations of approximately 9 to 17 seconds. 1 , 4

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Nicki Winfield Almquist, Gertjan Ettema, James Hopker, Øyvind Sandbakk and Bent R. Rønnestad

·min −1 5.57 (0.35) W max , W 477 (29) PPO, W 1610 (235) PO mean , W 851 (64) Power output at 4 mmol·L −1 [BLa −1 ], W 322 (40) VO 2 max, mL·kg −1 ·min −1 73.4 (4.0) W max , W·kg −1 6.3 (0.3) Abbreviations: BLa, blood lactate concentration; PO mean , mean power output; PPO, peak power output during a 30

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

sensation with ice ingestion have also been shown to improve endurance performance. 15 To date, few studies have compared precooling and heat acclimation, 16 – 18 with 2 of these focusing on repeat-sprint performance. 16 , 17 Full heat acclimation (≥10 d) was shown to improve peak power output compared

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Mathieu Lacome, Christopher Carling, Jean-Philippe Hager, Gerard Dine and Julien Piscione

the frequency of player involvements in tackles and game contact events. 10 Concomitant alterations in neuromuscular performance via measures of jump height and peak power output also occur following match play. West et al 11 reported that peak power output was reduced by ∼7% at 36 hours before

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

logger; GPS = global positioning system; DL = data logger; PPO = peak power output; SRM = Schoberer bike measurement system; W = workload; SP = speed; CF = crank frequency; DC = total distance covered; TZ = time in arbitrary speed zones; DZ = distance in arbitrary zones; COMP = competition situations

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Jason R. Boynton, Fabian Danner, Paolo Menaspà, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Chris R. Abbiss

after which power output increased 50 W every 5 minutes until volitional fatigue. Expired air was collected continuously and averaged over 5-second intervals (Parvomedics Inc, Sandy, UT). VO 2 max was determined as the average of the 6 highest consecutive 5-second intervals (30 s). Peak power output

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Kevin M. Carroll, Jake R. Bernards, Caleb D. Bazyler, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato and Michael H. Stone

combination of high-force and high-velocity training may provide superior results. 1 , 9 – 12 Toji and Kaneko 12 observed greater peak power output increases (52.9%) in the elbow flexors when varying heavy and light training loads (ie, greater load ranges throughout study). Similarly, Cormie et al 10