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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

highest cadence values (not necessarily consecutive) in a day, averaged over the monitoring time frame. It is shaped by both the intensity and persistence of stepping behavior within a day, as well as its consistency (regularity) across a week. As such, it represents the “natural best effort” in terms of

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Ken R. Lodewyk

, & McKeachie, 1991 ). PE-based research has linked PE-value beliefs to favorable outcomes like achievement, task choice, effort, persistence, intentions, and self-efficacy ( Chen, 2001 ; Gao et al., 2009 ; Gao, Newton, & Carson, 2008 ; Xiang, McBride, & Bruene, 2006 ). Research has also reported

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

encouraging and information based, as these types have been linked to higher self-esteem, positive affect, persistence, and self-determined motivation. Failing to provide feedback or punishment-oriented feedback decreases these outcomes and may also lead to higher anxiety. Second, feedback should be autonomy

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

may be an explanatory factor accounting for persistence and effort required to maintain an active lifestyle. Another possible interpretation is that as evidence shows that EI is associated with better stress management, PA may be a tool for managing stress among individuals with higher EI. 23 , 24

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

coaches) that emphasize building relationships, as well as building skill and putting in effort, are associated with greater enjoyment and persistence in sport (e.g.,  Atkins, Johnson, Force, & Petrie, 2015 ; Stuntz & Weiss, 2009 ). It seems reasonable that these kinds of benefits can arise associated

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

; Ryan, Koestner, & Deci, 1991 ). In Search of Intervening Mechanisms: The Role of Psychological Need Satisfaction and Self-Talk The research discussed so far points out that both the valence and style of normative feedback affect athletes’ enjoyment, persistence, and performance. An important gap in

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Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart

goals” (p. 220). The fundamental competencies that are relevant to sportspersonship are motivation oriented on the task, and self-structure oriented on morality. Athletes practicing good sportspersonship exhibit such virtues as fairness, self-control, courage, and persistence. According to Shields and

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover and Sandra Albione

the task. Empirical support for expectancy-value theory signals that such expectancies and task values are linked to achievement, particularly through their influence on related processes such as cognitive processing, choice, and persistence on learning tasks ( Wigfield & Eccles, 2000 ). Expectancies

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Melissa L. Breger, Margery J. Holman and Michelle D. Guerrero

’s priorities for technical execution and performance outcomes must examine the culture of sport that fuels the persistence of abuse. We will address the concept of a toxic culture in sport including toxic masculinity. Psychological theories about social norms are explored to consider ways to temper such a

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Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin

development of more self-determined regulations, which underpin task persistence and psychological well-being ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ; Sheldon, Elliot, Kim, & Kasser, 2001 ). Autonomy is characterized by feelings of choice and being able to choose one’s own behavior. Relatedness refers to feeling connectedness