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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

help an individual to understand and show compassion to others. Self-esteem is also associated with persistence, determination, and the belief that success is possible ( Sandelands, Brockner, & Glynn, 1988 ). In the current International Physical Literacy Association definition, it is suggested that

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green and Margaret E. Whitehead

that he or she can execute what is required to produce a certain outcome in a specific situation. Self-efficacy plays a central role in future participation behavior in relation to choice of activities, effort, and persistence with tasks. As Bressan and Weiss ( 1983 ) concur, “given the appropriate

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Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Delia C. Dumitru, Adrian Paterna and Mark D. Griffiths

internalization of an activity within the individual’s identity ( Vallerand, 2012 , 2015 ). Controlled internalization is produced by intrapersonal and/or interpersonal pressure deriving from contingencies attached to the exercise. Individuals who show OP eventually display a rigid persistence toward the

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and social support) may influence individuals’ physical activity participation and persistence via self-regulation behaviors. 8 Literature has suggested that higher self-efficacy leads to greater persistence and better performance in elementary physical education settings. 9 The

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Rob J. Rotunda and Stuart Ryan

. Other factors that may account for psychological benefits of MA participation include the development of a strong sense of group cohesion and identity and attachment to a respected instructor who emphasizes integrity, respect, and persistence. Relationship Between MA Participation and Psychosocial

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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

highest cadence values (not necessarily consecutive) in a day, averaged over the monitoring time frame. It is shaped by both the intensity and persistence of stepping behavior within a day, as well as its consistency (regularity) across a week. As such, it represents the “natural best effort” in terms of

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Ken R. Lodewyk

, & McKeachie, 1991 ). PE-based research has linked PE-value beliefs to favorable outcomes like achievement, task choice, effort, persistence, intentions, and self-efficacy ( Chen, 2001 ; Gao et al., 2009 ; Gao, Newton, & Carson, 2008 ; Xiang, McBride, & Bruene, 2006 ). Research has also reported

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James A. Carson, John K. Petrella, Vanessa Yingling, Mallory R. Marshall, Jenny O and Jennifer J. Sherwood

.B. , Denetclaw , W.F. , Gutiérrez , C.G. , . . .  Okpodu , C.M. ( 2016 ). Improving underrepresented minority student persistence in STEM . CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15 ( 3 ), es5 . PubMed ID: 30183571 10.1187/cbe.16-01-0038 Hernandez , P.R. , Schultz , P. , Estrada , M. , Woodcock , A

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

may be an explanatory factor accounting for persistence and effort required to maintain an active lifestyle. Another possible interpretation is that as evidence shows that EI is associated with better stress management, PA may be a tool for managing stress among individuals with higher EI. 23 , 24

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

coaches) that emphasize building relationships, as well as building skill and putting in effort, are associated with greater enjoyment and persistence in sport (e.g.,  Atkins, Johnson, Force, & Petrie, 2015 ; Stuntz & Weiss, 2009 ). It seems reasonable that these kinds of benefits can arise associated