This paper explores personal experiences in building a career in sport psychology and providing consulting services to professional tennis players. It describes the range of services provided, major client groups, and philosophy of service delivery. It reviews the overall training model used in service delivery as well as psychological assessment procedures used in consultation. It also describes how professional services were organized, type of services provided to specific client groups, and specific training components. Factors and issues influencing professional effectiveness and competence are explored. The importance of training and competence in all sport sciences are emphasized. The challenges and hardships encountered in building a successful career in this specialty are reviewed. The need for more effective and responsible applied technology and research is discussed.
Lael Gershgoren, Edson Medeiros Filho, Gershon Tenenbaum and Robert J. Schinke
This study was aimed at capturing the components comprising shared mental models (SMM) and the training methods used to address SMM in one athletic program context. To meet this aim, two soccer coaches from the same collegiate program were interviewed and observed extensively during practices and games throughout the 2009–2010 season. In addition, documents (e.g., players’ positioning on free kicks sheet) from the soccer program were reviewed. The data were analyzed inductively through a thematic analysis to develop models that operationalize SMM through its components, and training. Game intelligence and game philosophy were the two main operational themes defining SMM. Moreover, four themes emerged for SMM training: (a) the setting, (b) compensatory communication, (c) reinforcement, and (d) instruction. SMM was embedded within a more comprehensive conceptual framework of team chemistry, including emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. Implications of these conceptual frameworks are considered for sport psychologists and coaches.
Barbara Resnick, Marcia G. Ory, Kerrie Hora, Michael E. Rogers, Phillip Page, Jane N. Bolin, Roseann M. Lyle, Cody Sipe, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko and Terry L. Bazzarre
The Exercise Assessment and Screening for You (EASY) is a tool developed to help older individuals, their health care providers, and exercise professionals identify different types of exercise and physical activity regimens that can be tailored to meet the existing health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities of older adults. The EASY tool includes 6 screening questions that were developed based on an expert roundtable and follow-up panel activities. The philosophy behind the EASY is that screening should be a dynamic process in which participants learn to appreciate the importance of engaging in regular exercise, attending to health changes, recognizing a full range of signs and symptoms that might indicate potentially harmful events, and becoming familiar with simple safety tips for initiating and progressively increasing physical activity patterns. Representing a paradigm shift from traditional screening approaches that focus on potential risks of exercising, this tool emphasizes the benefits of exercise and physical activity for all individuals.
Marcia Matanin and Connie Collier
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe three preservice teachers’ beliefs as they evolved throughout a 4-year teacher preparation program. Data collection spanned 5 years and included formal interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and document analysis of reflective writings. The results indicated that participants assimilated program messages into their beliefs about teaching physical education relative to elementary content, teaching effectiveness, and the importance of planning. Participants were less likely to assimilate program messages about classroom management and the purpose of physical education due to the impact of their own biographies. Participants were in favor of emphasizing effort and participation and rejected the program philosophy on assessment of student learning. Data suggest that participants’ K–12 school experiences as well as their lived experiences play a powerful role in the formation of their beliefs about teaching physical education.
Julene Ensign, Amelia Mays Woods and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
This study evaluated the teaching effectiveness of six first-year physical educators, three Southwestern and three Midwestern graduates, employing different curricular approaches.
Utilizing surveys, interviews, questionnaires, and systematic observations, data were analyzed through a framework of seven essential teaching tasks (Rink, 2002).
Data indicated overall mean scores of 34% motor appropriate activity with Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE) and a rating of 70.37 on the Qualitative Measures of Teacher Performance Scale (QMTPS). Notable contrasts included higher mean scores for Southwest participants for motor-appropriate and motor-inappropriate activity. Midwest participants devoted more time to game situations, management, and social behavior. For QMTPS, Southwest means were higher in every category. Qualitative themes produced similarities in teaching philosophy, fidelity to preservice training, and perceived value of reflective practices. Contrasts existed in curricular emphases and approaches to classroom management.
Characteristics of effective teaching were demonstrated by all participants regardless of curricular emphasis.
Emily Tonn and Robert J. Harmison
This article provides an account of a trainee’s initial sport psychology practicum experience. Experiential knowledge gained by the trainee performance enhancement consultant with a junior college women’s basketball team is shared via a self-narrative in the form of a log she kept during the season and self-reflections. The log entries and self-reflections are organized around several themes that emerged over the course of the trainee’s practicum. The narrative outlines the trainee’s theoretical orientation and philosophy, highlights her experiences with the team, and reveals her thought processes related to the various situations she encountered. A better understanding of the process of sport psychology service delivery by a trainee is offered to guide other aspiring professionals during their initial training experiences.
David Adams, Brendan Cropley and Richard Mullen
The purpose of the current study was to empirically examine the potential course content, structure, and delivery mechanisms for a dedicated elite youth coach education programme in football (soccer) in the UK. By achieving this aim it was the intention of the authors to use the findings of this study for the future development of a customised coach education programme. Fifteen elite coaches, working in youth football at the time of the study, participated in one of three focus groups. Emerging from content analysis procedures, the findings placed specific importance on the development of an athlete-centred coaching philosophy, a focus on behaviours and activities associated with positive youth development, a movement away from traditional practices, and the development of the skills required to learn through reflective practice. In addition, a range of pedagogical approaches, including social approaches to learning, mentoring, and blended learning, were highlighted as ways to better deliver education programmes.
Emily A. Roper, Douglas J. Molnar and Craig A. Wrisberg
In the sport, physical activity, and aging literature, much attention has been given to the importance of physical activity and sport involvement for the elderly. Most of the literature, however, has focused on the continuity of physical activity among older adults. The purpose of this study was to extend the understanding of older sport participants by conducting a case study of Max Springer, a male, White master runner (88 years old). We assumed that continuity in sport would represent a primary adaptive strategy for coping with the aging process. In addition to two in-depth interviews with Max, the authors interviewed various other “participants” regarding their perceptions of Max as an older runner. From deductive analysis of the interview material, the following themes emerged as figural to Max’s experience as an older runner: tradition of always being physically active, I’m not an athlete, being of senior age, meaning and philosophy of running, and significance of social support.
Nammi Lee, Steven J. Jackson and Keunmo Lee
This study examines how one sporting figure came to signify fundamental shifts in Korean society at the beginning of the 21st century—a time when Korean society was destabilized and seeking to reposition itself within the global economy. Guus Hiddink, a Dutch-born soccer coach, is credited with helping Korea attain its highest-ever ranking at the 2002 World Cup. Sporting achievements aside, Hiddink’s role as a foreigner and national Korean hero presents a unique and unprecedented case study of the relationship between globalization, nationalism, and neoliberal citizenship. Hiddink was the first foreigner ever to be awarded honorary national citizenship. Furthermore, his general coaching strategies and philosophies assumed a mantralike quality, popularly referred to as the Hiddink syndrome, that influenced wider cultural changes with respect to economics, politics, education, and the very definition of national citizenship and identity.
Artur Poczwardowski, Clay P. Sherman and Keith P. Henschen
This article outlines 11 factors that a consultant may consider when planning, implementing, and evaluating psychological services. These factors are professional boundaries; professional philosophy; making contact; assessment; conceptualizing athletes’ concerns and potential interventions; range, types, and organization of service; program implementation; managing the self as an intervention instrument; program and consultant evaluation; conclusions and implications; and leaving the setting. All 11 factors represent important considerations for applied sport psychology professionals. Although consultants each have their own unique style and approach, these 11 factors are prerequisite considerations that form the foundation of a consultant’s effective practice. These guidelines may provide direction for a practitioner’s professional development, and as such, need time and commitment to be realized.