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Camilla Yuri Kawanishi and Márcia Greguol

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.

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Alan L. Smith

This study tested a model describing the relationships among perceptions of peer relationships, physical self-worth, affective responses toward physical activity, and physical activity motivation. The model was grounded in Harter’s (1978,1981a, 1986,1987) theoretical perspective, proposing that perceptions of peer relationships (i.e., friendship, peer acceptance) would predict physical activity motivation via affect and physical self-worth. Adolescents (N = 418, ages 12–15 years) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed the study variables. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the overall model and most of the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships among variables for both female and male samples. Examination of alternative models suggested that some expected relationships might have been suppressed by a high correlation between the friendship and peer-acceptance constructs. However, alternative models also showed that these constructs independently contribute to predicting motivational variables. The results illustrate the importance of peer relationships to adolescent physical activity motivation.

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Carlos M. Cervantes and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an after school physical activity intervention on adolescents with visual impairments within the context of Social Cognitive Theory. Four adolescents with visual impairments (1 female, 3 males) between 14 and 19 years of age from a residential school for the blind served as participants. We used a range-bound changing criterion single-subject design. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on selected social cognitive theory constructs. Results show that the intervention exerted functional control over the target behaviors (e.g., leisure-time physical activity) during intervention phases. Similarly, changes in scores for selected social cognitive constructs, in particular for outcome expectancy value, suggest a positive relationship between those constructs and physical activity behavior. No maintenance effects were observed.

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Meghan L. Butryn, Evan Forman, Kimberly Hoffman, Jena Shaw and Adrienne Juarascio

Background:

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) appears to have some promise as a method of promoting physical activity.

Method:

This pilot study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a brief, physical-activity-focused ACT intervention. Young adult, female participants were randomly assigned to an Education (n = 19) or ACT (n = 35) intervention. Both interventions consisted of 2, 2-hour group sessions. ACT sessions taught skills for mindfulness, values clarification, and willingness to experience distress in the service of behavior change.

Results:

Of the intervention completers, ACT participants increased their level of physical activity significantly more than Education participants.

Conclusions:

The results indicate that ACT approaches have the potential to promote short-term increases in physical activity.

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Katrina D. DuBose and Andrew J. McKune

The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

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Kristin M. Mills, Anita L. Stewart, Barbara Y. McLellan, Carol J. Verboncoeur, Abby C. King and Byron W. Brown

Health-promotion programs’ success depends on their ability to enroll representative samples of the target population, particularly those who are hard to reach and those who can benefit the most from such programs. This article evaluates enrollment bias in the recruitment process, examines the usefulness of a 2-phased recruitment strategy in enrolling representative proportions of eligible individuals in a physical-activity-promotion program for older adults, and explores predictors of enrollment. Of 1,381 randomly selected Medicare HMO members. 519 were eligible. Of these, 54% attended an informational meeting and 33% enrolled in the program. Relative to the target population, a representative proportion of women was enrolled, but those who enrolled were slightly younger. Of those who were eligible, a representative proportion of sedentary participants was recruited, those who were overweight were overrep-resented, and the oldest old, less educated, ethnic minorities, and precontem-plators of physical activity were underrepresented. Modifiable predictors of enrollment included interest in health, previous health-class attendance, and having had a physician recommend exercise.

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Natalie Colabianchi, Jamie L. Griffin, Kerry L. McIver, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Numerous studies have focused on the role of environments in promoting physical activity, but few studies have examined the specific locations where children are active and whether being active in these locations is associated with physical activity levels over time.

Methods:

Self-reported locations of where physical activity occurred and physical activity measured via accelerometry were obtained for a cohort of 520 children in 5th and 6th grades. Latent class analysis was used to generate classes of children defined by the variety of locations where they were active (ie, home, school grounds, gyms, recreational centers, parks or playgrounds, neighborhood, and church). Latent transition analyses were used to characterize how these latent classes change over time and to determine whether the latent transitions were associated with changes in physical activity levels.

Results:

Two latent classes were identified at baseline with the majority of children in the class labeled as ‘limited variety.’ Most children maintained their latent status over time. Physical activity levels declined for all groups, but significantly less so for children who maintained their membership in the ‘greater variety’ latent status.

Conclusions:

Supporting and encouraging physical activity in a variety of locations may improve physical activity levels in children.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Yi Yang, Dallas R. English, Ding Ding, Paul A. Gardiner and Terry Boyle

Observational studies have consistently demonstrated that physical activity is inversely associated with chronic disease and premature mortality. The causal nature of these associations is not always clear, and evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), widely held as the “gold standard

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Yuki Kondo, Ryuichi Sawa, Aoi Ebina, Masayo Takada, Hiromi Fujii, Yoko Okuyama, Yuko Tanikawa, Kaoru Souke and Rei Ono

Background:

Physical activity during pregnancy has numerous benefits, but the influence on the duration of labor is unclear. We investigated the influence of habitual physical activity during late pregnancy on the duration of labor, with consideration of previous delivery experience and the stage of labor.

Methods:

This prospective study included 103 women (48 nulliparous, 55 multiparous) in late pregnancy. Habitual physical activity was evaluated using the Baecke physical activity questionnaire (BQ). Women were divided into a high activity group (HA) and a low activity group (LA) based on their median total BQ score. Data pertaining to the duration of labor were obtained from the birth records after delivery.

Results:

In multiparous women, the duration of the second stage of labor was significantly shorter in the HA group than in the LA group [median (range): HA, 11 min (1–102 min); LA, 20 min (4–175 min); P < .05]. The significant difference persisted after adjusting for confounding variables (standardized β = –0.34; P = .01). In nulliparous women, there were no significant differences in duration of labor between groups.

Conclusions:

Higher physical activity in multiparous women during late pregnancy might positively influence the duration of the second stage of labor.

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Maria Hagstromer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Pekka Oja and Michael Sjostrom

Background:

The aim of this study was to compare physical activity components in the long, self-administrated version of IPAQ with an accelerometer in a population sample.

Methods:

In total 980 subjects (18-65 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for 7 consecutive days and thereafter filled in the IPAQ. Measures of total physical activity, time spent in moderate and in vigorous activity as well as time spent sitting as assessed by the IPAQ and the Actigraph were compared.

Results:

The results showed significant low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.07−0.36) between the 2 instruments and significantly (P < .001) higher values for sitting and vigorous intensity physical activity from the IPAQ compared with the Actigraph. The higher the values reported by the IPAQ the bigger differences were seen between the instruments. Comparison between the tertiles of total physical activity by the 2 instruments showed significant overall association with consistent agreement in the low and the high tertiles.

Conclusion:

The long form of IPAQ is a valid measure of physical activity in population research. However, the IPAQ likely overestimates actual physical activity as shown by its limited ability to classify adults into low and high categories of physical activity based on accelerometer data.