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Javier T. Gonzalez, Martin J. Barwood, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas and Glyn Howatson

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISIMatsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p < .05) but to a lesser extent following bout 2 (time x bout interaction, p < .05). Eccentric exercise decreased ISIMatsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p < .05). Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

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Linda C. Campanelli

Functional mobility is generally considered a major contributor to maintaining quality of life at any age. There are several overviews of physiological aging relative to physical functioning and/or mobility in the recent literature. This paper reiterates the need for continued exercise (at all levels) throughout one’s lifetime, specifically to enhance quality of life and functional independence. Implications for professionals and program development are included. Tailored exercises for both ambulatory and nonambulatory older adults to maintain flexibility, gait, and bed mobility are described.

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James H. Rimmer

During the last 15 years a growing number of persons with mental retardation (MR) have been relocated from large congregate facilities to residences in the community. With this trend comes the realization that exercise specialists employed in community based fitness centers will have to address the needs of a growing number of adults with MR who are beginning to access these facilities. Since adults with MR present themselves as a unique group in terms of their cognitive and physical function, this paper will address specific exercise guidelines that must be considered when developing cardiovascular fitness programs for this population.

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Danielle M. Thiel, Fatima Al Sayah, Jeff Vallance, Steven T. Johnson and Jeffrey A. Johnson

Background:

The objective was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods:

Data were from a prospective cohort of adults with type 2 diabetes. Weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported using the Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, and HRQL was reported using the SF-12 and 5-level EQ-5D. Participants were categorized based on current weekly MVPA recommendations. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between MVPA and HRQL, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the direction of change in HRQL after 1 year.

Results:

Mean age of participants (N = 1948) was 64.5 ± 10.8 years and 45% were female. Participants reported a mean of 84.1 ± 172.4 min of MVPA/week, and 21% (n = 416) met weekly MVPA recommendations. MVPA was associated with differences in the physical functioning (b = 5.42; P < .001), general health (b = 2.45; P = .037), and vitality (b = 2.83; P = .016) SF-12 dimensions. Participants who met recommendations were less likely to report a decline (vs. no change) in EQ-5D index score (OR = 0.75; 95% CI [0.57, 0.99]), and SF-12 physical component summary (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.50, 0.90]), compared with participants not meeting recommendations.

Conclusions:

Participants who met weekly MVPA recommendations reported better physical functioning and were more likely to maintain their physical and overall HRQL over time.

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Philipe de Souto Barreto, Anne-Marie Ferrandez and Bérengère Saliba-Serre

Background:

Participation bias in exercise studies is poorly understood among older adults. This study was aimed at looking into whether older persons who volunteer to participate in an exercise study differ from nonvolunteers.

Methods:

A self-reported questionnaire on physical activity and general health was mailed out to 1000 persons, aged 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System. Among them, 535 answered it and sent it back. Two hundred and thirty-three persons (age 69.7 ±7.6, 65.7% women) said they would volunteer to participate in an exercise study and 270 (age 71.7 ±8.8, 62.2% women) did not.

Results:

Volunteers were younger and more educated than nonvolunteers, but they did not differ in sex. They had less physical function decline and higher volumes of physical activity than nonvolunteers. Compared with volunteers, nonvolunteers had a worse self-reported health and suffered more frequently from chronic pain. Multiple logistic regressions showed that good self-reported health, absence of chronic pain, and lower levels of physical function decline were associated with volunteering to participate in an exercise study.

Conclusions:

Volunteers were fitter and healthier than nonvolunteers. Therefore, caution must be taken when generalizing the results of exercise intervention studies.

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Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae, Kathryn A. Newell, Rise Cherin, Martin J. Lee, Abby C. King and William L. Haskell

Objective:

To compare the effects of Tai Chi (TC, n = 37) and Western exercise (WE, n = 39) with an attention-control group (C, n = 56) on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy adults age 69 ± 5.8 yr, in a 2-phase randomized trial.

Methods:

TC and WE involved combined class and home-based protocols. Physical functioning included balance, strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Cognitive functioning included semantic fluency and digit-span tests. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis.

Results:

At 6 mo, WE had greater improvements in upper body flexibility (F = 4.67, p = .01) than TC and C. TC had greater improvements in balance (F = 3.36, p = .04) and a cognitive-function measure (F = 7.75, p < .001) than WE and C. The differential cognitive-function improvements observed in TC were maintained through 12 mo.

Conclusion:

The TC and WE interventions resulted in differential improvements in physical functioning among generally healthy older adults. TC led to improvement in an indicator of cognitive functioning that was maintained through 12 mo.

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Ikuyo Imayama, Catherine M. Alfano, Caitlin E. Mason, Chiachi Wang, Liren Xiao, Catherine Duggan, Kristin L. Campbell, Karen E. Foster-Schubert, Ching-Yun Wang and Anne McTiernan

Background:

Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL.

Methods:

Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs.

Results:

Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P trend ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P trend ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P trend < 0.05). Decreased waist circumference was associated with improved bodily pain and general health but with reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend ≤ 0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P trend < 0.02).

Conclusions:

Monitoring adherence and tailoring exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

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Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Danilo Yuzo Nishimoto, Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Patients on hemodialysis (HD) report lower physical activity (PA) levels. We analyzed factors associated with low levels of PA in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and compared PA on HD day and non-HD.

Methods:

79 patients wore an accelerometer and were classified according to time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Demographic data, BMI, comorbidities, clinical status, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were checked for association with PA. In addition, PA level was compared between days of HD and non-HD.

Results:

Accelerometer compliance was 78.5% [33 men and 29 women (53.96 ± 15.71 yrs) were included in analysis]. 35.5% of sample achieved ≥150min/week on MVPA. Lower MVPA was associated with older age (OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 1.11 to 30.19, P = .04), and lower score of physical function HRQoL (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.23 to 15.23, P = .02). In addition, patients spent 9.73% more time on sedentary behavior, 38.9% less on light PA and 74.9% less on MVPA on HD day versus non-HD day.

Conclusion:

Age and physical function HRQoL were the main factors associated to lower PA levels. In addition, lower time spent on PA during HD day suggest that strategies for increasing physical activity levels during HD day such exercising during HD session could help CKD patients to reach current PA recommendations.

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Christopher A. Shields, David M. Paskevich and Lawrence R. Brawley

This article presents three studies representing the development stages of a theoretically driven measure employed to assess the frequency of use of the self-presentational strategy of self-handicapping in exercise contexts (Self-Handicapping Exercise Questionnaire: SHEQ). First a pilot study was conducted to examine the nature of the phenomenology of self-handicaps reported in exercise settings. Study 2 involved item creation, item trimming, and model confirmation. Study 3 concerned factorial validation, cross-validating the self-handicapping measure created in the second study. The outcome was a 20-item measure assessing self-handicapping claims in exercise. The results of both model-testing studies indicated three unique and stable factors addressing self-handicapping claims about making exercise a routine, training in an exercise facility, and healthy physical functioning. Self-handicapping responses were not moderated by gender, age, or exercise setting. Further use and development of the SHEQ is discussed.

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Jack M. Guralnik, Suzanne Leveille, Stefano Volpato, Marcia S. Marx and Jiska Cohen-Mansfield

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that, using objective performance measures of physical functioning, disability risk can be predicted in nondisabled older adults. This makes it possible to recruit a nondisabled but at-risk population for clinical trials of disability prevention. Successful disability prevention in this population, for example through an exercise program, would have a major public health impact. To enhance the development of exercise interventions in this group it would be valuable to have additional information not available from existing epidemiologic studies. This report examines the evidence that functional limitations preceding disability can be identified in a community-dwelling population and that it is feasible to recruit these people into studies. It introduces a series of articles examining the characteristics of this population: motivators and barriers to exercise, exercise habits and preferences, the impact of positive and negative affect, and the impact of pain and functional limitations on attitudes toward exercise.