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Matthew S. Hickey, David L. Costill and Scott W. Trappe

This study investigated the influence of drink carbonation and carbohydrate content on ad libitum drinking behavior and body fluid and electrolyte responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight competitive male runners completed three 2-hr treadmill runs at 60% VO2max in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 C° and 40% RH. Three test drinks were used: 8% carbohydrate, low carbonation (8%-C); 8% carbohydrate, noncarbonated (8%-NC), and water (0%-NC). Blood samples were taken preexercise (0), at 60 and 120 min of exercise, and at 60 min of recovery (+60 min). The data suggest that while reports of heartburn tend to be higher on 8% carbohydrate drinks than on 0%-NC, this does not appear to be a function of drink carbonation. Similarly, the increased frequency of heartbum did not significantly reduce fluid consumption either during exercise or during a 60-min recovery period. Importantly, no differences were observed between fluid and electrolyte, or thermoregulatory responses to the three sport drinks. Thus, consumption of low-carbonation beverages does not appear to significantly influence drinking behavior or the related physiological responses during prolonged exercise in the heat.

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Andrew C. Morris, Ira Jacobs, Tom M. McLellan, Abbey Klugerman, Lawrence C.H. Wang and Jiri Zamecnik

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ginseng extract ingestion on physiological responses to intense exercise. Subjects performed a control ride (CN) on a cycle ergometer, followed by placebo (PL) and ginseng (GS) treatments. Ginseng was ingested as 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days prior to trial GS. Venous blood was sampled for FFA, lactate, and glucose analyses. Due to similar findings for both dose groups, the subjects were considered as one group. Lactate, FFA, VO2, VE, and RPE increased significantly from 10 through 40 min. RER increased during the first 10 min of exercise and then remained stable, with no intertrial differences. Glucose did not vary significantly from 0 to 40 min or among treatments. RPE was significantly greater and time to exhaustion was significantly less during trial CN than PL or GS, while PL and GS trials were similar. The data indicated that with 1 week of pretreatment there is no ergogenic effect of ingesting the ginseng saponin extract.

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Matthew T. Wittbrodt, Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ross A. Sherman and Christopher C. Cheatham


The impact of mild hypohydration on physiological responses and cognitive performance following exercise-heat stress (EHS) were examined compared with conditions when fluids were ingested ad libitum (AL) or replaced to match sweat losses (FR).


Twelve unacclimatized, recreationally-active men (22.2 ± 2.4 y) completed 50 min cycling (60%VO2peak) in the heat (32°C; 65% RH) under three conditions: no fluid (NF), AL, and FR. Before and after EHS, a cognitive battery was completed: Trail making, perceptual vigilance, pattern comparison, match-to-sample, and letter-digit recognition tests.


Hypohydration during NF was greater compared with AL and FR (NF: -1.5 ± 0.6; AL: -0.3 ± 0.8; FR: -0.1 ± 0.3% body mass loss) resulting in higher core temperature (by 0.4, 0.5 °C), heart rate (by 13 and 15 b·min-1), and physiological strain (by 1.3, 1.5) at the end of EHS compared with AL and FR, respectively. Cognitive performance (response time and accuracy) was not altered by fluid condition; however, mean response time improved (p < .05) for letter-digit recognition (by 56.7 ± 85.8 ms or 3.8%; p < .05) and pattern comparison (by 80.6 ± 57.4 ms or 7.1%; p < .001), but mean accuracy decreased in trail making (by 1.2 ± 1.4%; p = .01) after EHS (across all conditions).


For recreational athletes, fluid intake effectively mitigated physiological strain induced by mild hypohydration; however, mild hypohydration resulting from EHS elicited no adverse changes in cognitive performance.

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Jennifer K. Ormerod, Tabatha A. Elliott, Timothy P. Scheett, Jaci L. VanHeest, Lawrence E. Armstrong and Carl M. Maresh

The purposes of this study were to characterize measures of fluid intake and perception of thirst in women over a 6-week period of exercise-heat acclimation and outdoor training and examine if this lengthy acclimation period would result in changes in fluid intake that differ from those previously reported in men utilizing a shorter acclimation protocol of 8–10 days. Voluntary water intake (11–17 °C) and perception of thirst were measured in a group of 5 women (21–26 yr) undergoing exercise-heat acclimation for 90 min/day, 3 days/wk (36 °C, rh 50–70%) and outdoor training 3 days/wk for 6 weeks. Decreased drinking during acclimation was characterized by a decrease in the number of drinks (35 ± 10 to 17 ± 5; p < .05), greater time to first drink (9.9 ± 2.0 to 23.1 ± 4.7 min; p < .05), and a decrease in total volume ingested per week (3310 ± 810 to 1849 ± 446 ml; p < .05) through the 6-week study. Mean perceived thirst measurements remained low and showed only slight variance (3 ± 0.4 to 5 ± 0.4). These observations support a psycho-physiological response pattern different than that previously observed during 8–10 day acclimation protocols in men.

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William McGarvey, Richard Jones and Stewart Petersen

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of interval (INT) and continuous (CON) cycle exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Twelve males first completed a graded exercise test for VO2max and then the two exercise challenges in random order on separate days approximately 1 wk apart. The INT challenge consisted of seven 2 min work intervals at 90% VO2max, each followed by 3 min of relief at 30% VO2max. The CON exercise consisted of 30 to 32 min of continuous cycling at 65% VO2max. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were measured for 30 min before, during, and for 2 h post-exercise. Three methods were used to analyze post-exercise oxygen consumption and all produced similar results. There were no significant differences in either the magnitude or duration of EPOC between the CON and INT protocols. HR, however, was higher (P < 0.05) while respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lower (P < 0.05) following INT. These results indicate that when total work was similar, the magnitude and duration of EPOC were similar following CON or INT exercise. The differences in HR and RER during recovery suggest differential physiological responses to the exercise challenges.

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Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Phillip B. Sparling, Linda B. Rosskopf and Teresa K. Snow

Our purpose was to determine if sports drinks with 6 and 8% CHO differentially affect physiological responses or run performance in the heat. Ten men ran 32 km while ingesting: placebo (P), 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE6), and 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE8). At 15 km, a 250 mL drink labeled with deuterium oxide (D2O) was ingested. Blood glucose and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for CE6 and CE8 compared to P. Rectal temperature (Tre) at 32 km was higher for CE8 (40.1 ± 0.2 °C) compared to P (39.5 ± 0.2 °C) but similar to CE6 (39.8 ± 0.2 °C). D2O accumulation was not different among drink trials. Run performance was 8% faster for CE8 (1062 ± 31 s) compared to P (1154 ± 56 s) and similar to CE6 (1078 ± 33 s). Confirming the ACSM Position Stand, 8% CE are acceptable during exercise in the heat and attenuate the decline in performance.

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Gi Broman, Miguel Quintana, Margareta Engardt, Lennart Gullstrand, Eva Jansson and Lennart Kaijser

The aim of the study was to examine submaximal and maximal physiological responses and perceived exertion during deep-water running with a vest compared with the responses during treadmill running in healthy elderly women. Eleven healthy women 70 ± 2 years old participated. On two different occasions they performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill on land and a graded maximal exercise test in water wearing a vest. At maximal work the oxygen uptake was 29% lower (p < .05), the heart rate was 8% lower (p < .05), and the ventilation was 16% lower (p < .05) during deep-water running than during treadmill running. During submaximal absolute work the heart rate was higher during deep-water running than during treadmill running for the elderly women. The participants had lower maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, and rate of perceived exertion during maximal deep-water running with a vest than during maximal treadmill running. These responses were, however, higher during submaximal deep-water running than during treadmill running.

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Charles J. Hardy, Evelyn G. Hall and Perry H. Prestholdt

Two experiments are reported that investigate the mediational role of social influence in the self-perception of exertion. In Experiment 1, subjects performed three 15-min trials on a cycle ergometer at 25%, 50%, and 75% VO2max, both in the presence of another performer (a coactor) and alone. The results indicated that subjects reported lower RPEs when performing with another, particularly at the moderate (50%) intensity. In Experiment 2, subjects performed one 15-min trial at 50% of VO2max, both alone and in the presence of another performer (coactor) exhibiting nonverbal "cues" that the work was either extremely easy or extremely difficult. The results indicated that subjects exposed to the low-intensity cue information reported lower RPEs than when performing alone. Mo significant differences were noted for those subjects exposed to the high-intensity cue information. These findings are discussed in terms of a self-presentational analysis. That such effects were evidenced without physiological responses (VO2, VE, HR) accompanying them supports the notion that psychological variables can play a significant role in the self-perception of exertion. These results, however, are limited to untrained individuals exercising at moderate intensities.

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Naiandra Dittrich, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Ralph Beneke and Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo

The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the time to exhaustion (TE) and the physiological responses at continuous and intermittent (ratio 5:1) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in well-trained runners. Ten athletes (32.7 ± 6.9 y, VO2max 61.7 ± 3.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental treadmill test, three to five 30-min constant-speed tests to determine the MLSS continuous and intermittent (5 min of running, interspaced by 1 min of passive rest), and 2 randomized TE tests at such intensities. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the changes in physiological variables during the TE tests and between continuous and intermittent exercise. The intermittent MLSS velocity (MLSSint = 15.26 ± 0.97 km/h) was higher than in the continuous model (MLSScon = 14.53 ± 0.93 km/h), while the TE at MLSScon was longer than MLSSint (68 ± 11 min and 58 ± 15 min, P < .05). Regarding the cardiorespiratory responses, VO2 and respiratory-exchange ratio remained stable during both TE tests while heart rate, ventilation, and rating of perceived exertion presented a significant increase in the last portion of the tests. The results showed a higher tolerance to exercising during MLSScon than during MLSSint in trained runners. Thus, the training volume of an extensive interval session (ratio 5:1) designed at MLSS intensity should take into consideration this higher speed at MLSS and also the lower TE than with continuous exercise.

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L. Christopher Eschbach, Michael J. Webster, Joseph C. Boyd, Patrick D. McArthur and Tammy K. Evetovich

It has been suggested that Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES). also known as Siberian ginseng or ciwuija. increases fat utilization in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses to supplementation with ES in endurance cyclists. Using arandomized. double-blind crossover design. 9 highly-trained men (28 ± 2 years. V̇O2max 57.3±2.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1) cycled for 120 min at 60% V̇O2max followed by a simulated 10-km lime trial. Diet was controlled, and ES (1,200 mg · day−1) or a placebo (P) were administered for 7 days prior to each of the two trials. Oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min, and rating of perceived exertion. plasma [lactate], and plasma [glucose j were recorded every 20 min during the 120 min of steady state cycling. There were no significant differences (p > .05) between the ES and P groups at any steady-state time interval or during the cycling time trial (ES = 18.10 ± 0.42, P = 17.83 ± 0.47 min). In contrast with previous reports, the results of this study suggest that ES supplementation does not alter steady-state substrate utilization or 10-km cycling performance time.