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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

– 5 However, an aquatic environment in comparison with a land environment may promote additional benefits for the training of elderly populations. Specific physiological adaptations arising from water immersion lead to a lower impact on the joints of lower limbs, 6 lower heart rate (HR) and blood

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Francisco Tavares, Martyn Beaven, Júlia Teles, Dane Baker, Phil Healey, Tiaki B. Smith and Matthew Driller

, McKenzie DC . Delayed muscle soreness: the inflammatory response to muscle injury and its clinical implications . Sports Med . 1995 ; 20 ( 1 ): 24 – 40 . doi:10.2165/00007256-199520010-00003 10.2165/00007256-199520010-00003 7481277 25. Smith LL . Cytokine hypothesis of overtraining: a physiological

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Milos R. Petrovic, Amador García-Ramos, Danica N. Janicijevic, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Olivera M. Knezevic and Dragan M. Mirkov

, Zacharogiannis E , Maridaki M . Physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval and continuous training in kayak athletes . J Strength Cond Res . 2020 ; 34 ( 8 ): 2258 – 2266 .  doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002710 29952869 19. Pickett CW , Nosaka K , Zois J , Hopkins WG , Blazevich JA

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could

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Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado and Jordan Santos-Concejero

lactate, %HRmax, and intended physiological adaptation, and during all phases of training, the maintenance of a relatively high volume in zone 2 (threshold training) was observed. This does reduce closer to the competitive season, but it still constitutes a larger proportion of training than zones 3, 4

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Simon J. MacLeod, Chris Hagan, Mikel Egaña, Jonny Davis and David Drake

Because of the need to develop a wide range of physical qualities among rugby union (RU) players, practitioners employ a range of training modalities to elicit physiological adaptation and skill acquisition. 1 Session content can be manipulated to target the development of the identified qualities

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Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols

on an ATM or AGTM might be appropriate alternatives to exercise on a LTM for adults with PD. The physiological adaptations and changes in functional outcomes to exercise on an ATM in those with PD have not been previously defined. However, differences between functional outcomes following long

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Slobodan Jaric

Maximal sprints in the leg cycle ergometer exercise are commonly used in routine athletic testing as well as in studies investigating the physiological adaptations to strenuous exercise. 1 These tests provide valid measures of anaerobic performance, which is a determinant of success in short

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Maria C. Madueno, Vincent J. Dalbo, Joshua H. Guy, Kate E. Giamarelos, Tania Spiteri and Aaron T. Scanlan

associated with active recovery between RCOD sprints may offer a useful training stimulus to overload players for enhanced physiological adaptation. Although the practical utility of our findings is strong, end users should be cognizant of the preliminary nature of our data and need for future studies

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David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson

physiological adaptations, and future research is needed to evaluate this, using appropriate training designs ( Bermon et al., 2017 ; Bloomer et al., 2005 ; Decroix et al., 2018 ; Morillas-Ruiz et al., 2006 ). The postexercise increase in the COX-2 transcription levels was not affected by flavonoid