The cluster concept refers to a well-established field of research ( Martin & Sunley, 2003 ; Porter, 1998 , 2008 ), and it has been an enduring element in national economic policies ( Benner, 2012 ; Ketels, 2015 ). The cluster model is based on the spatial concentration of primarily small- and
Nick Takos, Duncan Murray and Ian O’Boyle
government policy . Annals of Leisure Research, 6 ( 3 ), 209 – 221 . doi:10.1080/11745398.2003.10600922 10.1080/11745398.2003.10600922 Hoye , R. ( 2004 ). Leadership within Australian voluntary sport organization boards . Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 16 ( 3 ), 297 – 313 . doi:10.1002/nml.108
Gina Daddario and Brian J. Wigley
This study examines the discourse associated with the membership policies at Shoal Creek and Augusta National Golf Clubs. Get-away havens for wealthy White males, these clubs became contested terrains when each was scheduled to host a major golf event: the 1990 PGA Championship at Shoal Creek and the 2003 Masters Tournament at Augusta National. At the time of the events in this study, Shoal Creek had a Whites-only membership policy and Augusta National a male-only policy, which it maintains today. Controversy ensued when the chairs of each club made disparaging comments to the press about these excluded groups. Two parallel areas were considered in our comparative analysis: how the commercial sponsors responded to the controversies, and how the club chairs and their supporters used the rhetorical strategy of apologia to defend themselves and restore the public image of golf. Our analysis reveals the differences in how the cultural constructs of race and gender were negotiated in each case.
Usha Sujit Nair
This paper outlines the involvement of the government of the state of Kerala in India in the promotion of sport. The organizational arrangements, the policies, and the specific programs facilitating such involvement are described and discussed. The correspondence between the programs of the Government of India and the Kerala government is highlighted.
Charlie Song, Jianhua Zhang and Stu Ryan
This study assessed the perceptions and attitudes of university students in Beijing toward the international media’s coverage of the 2008 Olympics and of China during the Games. A total of 1,000 students were randomly surveyed immediately after the Games’ Closing Ceremony. Descriptive analysis of the data indicated that most survey respondents were pleased with the international media’s coverage of the Olympics and of China in general. One-way multivariate analysis of variance and Scheffé’s post hoc test results revealed that the respondents’ attitudes toward the international media’s coverage differed significantly among categories of the classified variables of age, class, academic major, and political preference. The study also found that a large portion of the respondents would be pleased to see the Chinese government permanently adopt a national policy to permit foreign media to report unrestrictedly in China after the Olympics, as the policy was implemented during the Olympics.
Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci
This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.
Tracy Taylor and Kristine Toohey
Our research investigated the sporting experiences of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, a subpopulation excluded from most mainstream sport scholarship in Australia. The information was collected via surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with women. Sporting, local government, community, and ethnic organizations were also surveyed about their current policies and practices regarding sport for women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The interviews resonate with a strong sense of frustration about current sport policy and provision. For many sport providers, the low levels of sport participation of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is a perplexing issue. The comments of many of the women interviewed reflect extreme dissatisfaction with the current lack of consideration given to them by sports providers, but a hope that the situation will improve for the better if the two groups can work together to improve their understanding of the issues.
Ronald B. Mitchell, Todd Crosset and Carol A. Barr
Popular and academic discourse typically analyze the strategies used to induce compliance with sport association policies and rules within a framework that shoehorns a diverse array of strategies into two categories: sanctions or compensation, This article proposes a taxonomy that goes beyond the “logic of consequences” inherent in the behavioral models of sanctions and compensation. Sport managers and scholars can encourage compliance through six ideal-type strategies: punitive, remunerative, generative, preventive, cognitive, and normative. These six categories provide the foundation for systematically evaluating the relative effectiveness of different strategies at altering the behavior of league members. This article delineates the different paths by which these different policy strategies influence behavior. Five questions designed to guide managers in the selection of strategies are offered. Although the National Collegiate Athletic Association is used as a case example throughout, the framework has applicability to all sport associations.
Sarah Jane Kelly, Michael Ireland, Frank Alpert and John Mangan
An online survey was conducted to examine the alleged association between alcohol sponsorship of sports and alcohol consumption and attitudes toward sponsoring brands by Australian university sportspeople (i.e., university students representing their university in competitive sports; N = 501; 51% female). A third (33%) of participants reported receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between disordered consumption (i.e., alcohol abuse) and sportspeople’s receiving direct-to-user sponsorship in the form of product samples, volume club rebates, vouchers, or prizes. Positive attitudes toward alcohol sponsorship in sport correlated with dangerously excessive (i.e., acute) drinking. The evidence suggests that policy makers, sporting organizations, and universities should target specific sponsorships and consumption outcomes rather than considering an overall ban on alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. Results suggest that student-targeted policy and governance alternatives directed at team culture, attitudes toward alcohol, and more subtle forms of sponsorships (i.e., discounted product and vouchers) may be appropriate.
Jennifer E. Bruening and Marlene A. Dixon
The current study examined, via online focus groups, the consequences of work–family conflict at work and at home with 41 mothers who are Division I head coaches. In addition, the authors focused on the coping mechanisms that these women used to achieve success at work and quality of life with family. Results revealed that work–family conflict influenced outcomes with work (e.g., staffing patterns, relationships with athletes, team performance), family (e.g., time spent and relationships with children and spouses or partners), and life (e.g., guilt and exhaustion, balance and perspective, weaving work and family). Coping mechanisms included stress relief, self-awareness, organization and time management, sacrificing aspects of work, support networks, flexibility with hours, and family-friendly policies and cultures. Implications are that the women work to promote change within their circle of influence. Although their efforts might not result in actual policy changes, over which they feel limited control, they might result in changes in perceptions and attitudes.