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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

of an EHS case or death, we need to determine whether the system failure is related to EHS-prevention policies and procedures or it occurred with inadequate medical treatment ( Parsons et al., 2019 ). This nuance is critical, because most EHS cases should never occur in the first place. Simple

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Tamara Vehige Calise, William DeJong, Timothy Heren, Chloe Wingerter and Harold W. Kohl III

contexts are specifically examined. 14 , 23 As such, this study looked at both total postmove physical activity as well as walking for recreation inside the neighborhood. Findings could help guide the development of tailored, cost-effective, and efficient policies and interventions. This may be especially

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Chuck E. Matthews, S. Ghazaleh Dashti, Aiden R. Doherty, Audrey Bergouignan, Eline H. van Roekel, David W. Dunstan, Nicholas J. Wareham, Thomas E. Yates, Katrien Wijndaele and Brigid M. Lynch

and between individuals) may help to identify both macroenvironmental and microenvironmental factors and contextual cues to target (eg, combinations of environment/location, physical objects, time of day, emotional state)—some of which may be more amenable to behavioral and policy changes than

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Lauren B. Raine, John R. Biggan, Carol L. Baym, Brian J. Saliba, Neal J. Cohen and Charles H. Hillman

and eighth grade would positively correlate with improvements in academic achievement. Such findings would extend the growing literature implicating aerobic fitness in academic achievement, which could inform policy and practice regarding activities that promote fitness as a means to promote academic

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Martin C. Waller, Deborah A. Kerr, Martyn J. Binnie, Emily Eaton, Clare Wood, Terreen Stenvers, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Carmel Goodman and Kagan J. Ducker

supplement programs. Therefore, gaining an understanding of the level of knowledge that athletes possess regarding supplements and the policies that guide their use is important in guiding education programs to combat or reinforce current supplement behaviors. Recent reports have suggested that 15–30% of

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Courtney Pilkerton and Thomas K. Bias

Background:

Public health researchers have demonstrated the potential for significant gains in physical activity through public policy. West Virginia passed House Bill 2816, known as the Healthy Lifestyles Act in 2005. This Act amended the code on the requirements of physical education and physical fitness in schools, creating minimum physical education requirements at each grade level. The goal of this policy evaluation was to identify if, 5 years postimplementation, students have increased physical education in schools.

Methods:

Data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System surveys were used to examine the time trend of weekly PE participation in WV Schools.

Results:

There have been no significant changes in participation in physical education classes since before the implementation of the HLA.

Conclusions:

Simple policy changes by themselves may not effectively create change in physical activity environments, as policy is moderated by strength of language, implementation, and enforcement. Further studies are needed to determine why the HLA has not been successful in increasing physical activity of youth and what changes to the standards and mandates, ways implementation in schools could be improved, and/or the enforcement of these standards are needed for such policies to be successful.

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In the article “The Effectiveness of Urban Design and Land Use and Transport Policies and Practices to Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review” which appeared in Vol. 3, Supplement 1, of the Journal, Figure 4 was omitted from page S63:

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Lindsey Turner, Jamie F. Chriqui and Frank J. Chaloupka

Background:

Active transportation to school provides an important way for children to meet physical activity recommendations. The “walking school bus” (WSB) is a strategy whereby adults walk with a group of children to and from school along a fixed route. This study assessed whether school-organized WSB programs varied by school characteristics, district policies, and state laws.

Methods:

School data were gathered by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of U.S. public elementary schools during the 2008−2009 and 2009−2010 school years (n = 632 and 666, respectively). Corresponding district policies and state laws were obtained.

Results:

Nationwide, 4.2% of schools organized a WSB program during 2008−2009, increasing to 6.2% by 2009−2010. Controlling for demographic covariates, schools were more likely to organize a WSB program where there was a strong district policy pertaining to safe active routes to school (OR = 2.14, P < .05), or a state law requiring crossing guards around schools (OR = 2.72, P < .05).

Conclusions:

WSB programs are not common but district policies and state laws are associated with an increased likelihood of elementary schools organizing these programs. Policymaking efforts may encourage schools to promote active transportation.

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Amy A. Eyler, Elizabeth Budd, Gabriela J. Camberos, Yan Yan and Ross C. Brownson

Background:

Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation.

Methods:

An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006 to 2012 for 1010 topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (eg, obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.

Results:

Of the 1,542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N = 460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment.

Conclusion:

Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy.

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Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Betty Méndez-Perez, Vanessa Castro Morales, Joana Martín-Rojo, Bianca Tristan, Amilid Torín Bandy, Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez, Coromoto Macías-Tomei and Mercedes López-Blanco

Background:

The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available.

Methods:

Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents.

Results:

Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D.

Conclusions:

63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.