The interactive model views the teacher as a powerful socializing agent and establishes links between biographical characteristics and the demands of different contexts. This study describes the dynamic interaction of factors related to teacher role identity and school context. Specifically the goal was to employ case studies to examine the biographies of three first-year teachers to determine how individual perception of the teaching role impacts professional development during the first year of teaching. Using subject interviews, field notes, lesson plans, student performance data, and informal interviews with administrators and coworkers, a comparison was made between the cases to learn how the teaching perspectives of first-year teachers interact with school contexts. Results support the notion that the beginning teacher can be an active agent in controlling the direction of biography and social structures in the socialization process.
Melinda A. Solmon, Terry Worthy and Jo A. Carter
Stephen Harvey and Shane Pill
Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.
Elizabeth A. Wanless, Ryan M. Brewer, James E. Johnson and Lawrence W. Judge
To prepare students for employment in sport, many sport management programs involve students in revenue generation activities, such as ticket or sponsorship sales. Literature evaluating student perceptions of this specific type of experiential learning remains sparse. This constructivist qualitative study evaluated student perceptions of learning from two courses containing experiential revenue generation projects. Data were gathered via structured-question electronic survey. Fifty-one of 60 students participated. Results generally supported previous research conclusions; conducting experiential learning projects increases skill and professional development and offers a realistic career preview but demands significant time commitment. Important contradictions, however, were present in comparison with past literature. The unique nature of sales-based projects involving students in ticket sales and sponsorship sales served as a platform for students to develop critically important interpersonal skills. This benefit was not identified in studies evaluating experiential learning opportunities that did not contain a sales-based component.
Tom Sharpe, Monica Fabian Lounsbery, Cindy Golden and Chris Deibler
Collaboration among teacher educators and practicing teachers is currently a popular education reform strategy. Two matched undergraduate cohorts, one prepared in a Professional Development School (PDS) collaborative, were followed over a 5-year period to determine the benefits of one collaborative model. Qualitative data were collected across the 2 undergraduate groups (n = 8, n = 6), two cooperating teacher groups (n = 16, n = 12), two public school administrative groups (n = 4, n = 3), and one faculty group (graduate student n = 3, faculty n = 3). Observational data were also collected for each undergraduate cohort, representing practicum, student teaching, and inservice teaching. Qualitative data over the 5-year study period showed trends from apprehension to receptivity and recommitment to the teacher education process for all collaborative participants. While not directly attributable to the collaboration model alone, exposed undergraduates and their students also demonstrated marked changes in select daily practices correlated with effective instruction. Challenges and implications for research on collaborative activities are last discussed.
Susan E. Inglis
The status and representation of women in university sport continues to be an area of concern and responsibility for the athletic administrator. This paper presents a description of the major philosophical and organizational changes that have occurred with the governance of women’s intercollegiate sport. Data from American and Canadian studies describing the involvement patterns of women in university sport are presented, and areas for reform that will increase the status and representation of women in university sport are put forward. Three areas for reform presented include (a) securing commitment to change, (b) improving professional preparations in career planning for women at high school and university levels who aspire to careers in athletics, as well as professional development for women currently involved in athletic administration, and (c) gaining support from academic areas in the identification of effective, positive change for women in university sport.
Graham Cuskelly and Christopher J. Auld
This investigation examined the perceived importance of a range of occupational responsibilities of sport and recreation managers and whether there were differences according to the organizational setting. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to 196 sport and recreation managers in Queensland, Australia; there was an effective response rate of 124 (69%). The results indicated that the job responsibilities perceived as most important were public relations, financial management, program planning and management, and interpersonal communication. Significant differences were found between managers in different work settings. It was also evident that there were commonalities in the perceived importance of job competencies between the United States and Australia. The study concluded that there have been generally consistent findings about the perceived importance of job competencies, and that different sectors of the sport industry require different emphases in curricula development and professional development programs.
Thomas L. McKenzie, John E. Alcaraz, James F. Sallis and F. Nell Faucette
We assessed effects of a physical education professional development program on 3 manipulative skills of 4th- and 5th-graders. Seven schools were randomly assigned to 3 treatment conditions: PES (Physical Education Specialists), TT (Trained Classroom Teachers), and CO (Controls). Students (358 boys, 351 girls) were randomly selected from 56 classes and tested on throwing, catching, and kicking. In the fall baseline, boys scored higher than girls; 5th-graders scored higher than 4th-graders. In the spring, children in PES schools had improvements of 21%; those in TT and CO schools gained 19% and 13%, respectively. Gain scores were significant for catching (p = .005) and throwing (p = .008). Intervention effects did not differ by gender or grade. Adjusting for condition, boys made significantly greater gains than girls. The results indicate that children’s manipulative skills can be improved by quality physical education programs delivered by PE specialists and classroom teachers with substantial training.
Becky W. Pissanos and Pamela C. Allison
The purpose of this topical life history was to gain insight into the individual and socializing conditions that influenced an experienced elementary school physical education teacher’s perceptions and actions regarding continued professional learning. The teacher was interviewed in a series of five interviews over a 3-year period. The audiotaped transcriptions were subjected to the constant comparison data analysis technique, with the emergent patterns reported as results. Continued professional learning was valued as an essential concept associated with being a professional because it ultimately increased the teacher’s potential for helping students learn. Professional development experiences associated with the teacher’s undergraduate professional preparation institution and participation in a national curriculum project contributed most significantly to the teacher’s continued professional learning. The teacher’s continued professional learning was influenced by (a) students, (b) status, (c) administrative support, (d) community perceptions of sport, and (e) personal/professional interactions.
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Mary L. Henninger
The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced the career trajectories of veteran urban secondary physical education teachers. The careers of these teachers were studied from the theoretical perspectives of teacher efficacy and teacher career development. Participants included 9 secondary urban physical education teachers (4 females and 5 males). Data were collected using 7 qualitative methods. Data analysis involved constant comparison through the processes of open and axial coding followed by a cross-case comparison (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Findings indicated that organizational contexts of these veteran urban physical education teachers played the most salient role in shaping their beliefs and behaviors. Although the organizational contextual factors reported were similar across this group of teachers, individual responses differed greatly. These differences delineated teachers into two groups of stayers: lifers and troupers. Knowledge of workplace conditions’ specific effects on teachers’ career trajectories provides valuable information for initial preparation of novice teachers and for further professional development.