Collaboration among teacher educators and practicing teachers is currently a popular education reform strategy. Two matched undergraduate cohorts, one prepared in a Professional Development School (PDS) collaborative, were followed over a 5-year period to determine the benefits of one collaborative model. Qualitative data were collected across the 2 undergraduate groups (n = 8, n = 6), two cooperating teacher groups (n = 16, n = 12), two public school administrative groups (n = 4, n = 3), and one faculty group (graduate student n = 3, faculty n = 3). Observational data were also collected for each undergraduate cohort, representing practicum, student teaching, and inservice teaching. Qualitative data over the 5-year study period showed trends from apprehension to receptivity and recommitment to the teacher education process for all collaborative participants. While not directly attributable to the collaboration model alone, exposed undergraduates and their students also demonstrated marked changes in select daily practices correlated with effective instruction. Challenges and implications for research on collaborative activities are last discussed.
Tom Sharpe, Monica Fabian Lounsbery, Cindy Golden and Chris Deibler
Gloria E. Napper-Owen
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of induction assistance beyond the year of participation. Two second-year teachers mentored by the researcher in their first year of teaching participated. Changes in teacher process behaviors were analyzed, and emergent themes from the first year of teaching were examined to determine relevancy in the second year. The results indicated that both teachers spent more time in management during the second year observations than at the end of the first year of teaching to help achieve program outcomes for responsible movement. A shift in the amount of time in instructional behaviors indicated students were receiving more feedback while engaged in practice opportunities. The teachers indicated less difficulty in planning developmentally appropriate lessons and more confidence in their teaching. The beginning teachers felt more secure in their teaching abilities and engaged in new teaching strategies that enhanced their professional development.
Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Michalis Stylianou and Hans van der Mars
This study addressed teachers’ fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers’ fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups. Participants were 20 Physical Education teachers. Ten teachers worked in a highly supportive district, while 10 teachers worked in nonsupportive districts. Data were collected using field notes, a DPE observation instrument, and informal interviews. Two themes emerged from the data: (a) district support led to higher teacher fidelity levels to the DPE curriculum, and (b) the teachers from the nonsupport district implemented management procedures differently than the high support district teachers.
Becky W. Pissanos and Pamela C. Allison
The purpose of this topical life history was to gain insight into the individual and socializing conditions that influenced an experienced elementary school physical education teacher’s perceptions and actions regarding continued professional learning. The teacher was interviewed in a series of five interviews over a 3-year period. The audiotaped transcriptions were subjected to the constant comparison data analysis technique, with the emergent patterns reported as results. Continued professional learning was valued as an essential concept associated with being a professional because it ultimately increased the teacher’s potential for helping students learn. Professional development experiences associated with the teacher’s undergraduate professional preparation institution and participation in a national curriculum project contributed most significantly to the teacher’s continued professional learning. The teacher’s continued professional learning was influenced by (a) students, (b) status, (c) administrative support, (d) community perceptions of sport, and (e) personal/professional interactions.
Thomas L. McKenzie, John E. Alcaraz, James F. Sallis and F. Nell Faucette
We assessed effects of a physical education professional development program on 3 manipulative skills of 4th- and 5th-graders. Seven schools were randomly assigned to 3 treatment conditions: PES (Physical Education Specialists), TT (Trained Classroom Teachers), and CO (Controls). Students (358 boys, 351 girls) were randomly selected from 56 classes and tested on throwing, catching, and kicking. In the fall baseline, boys scored higher than girls; 5th-graders scored higher than 4th-graders. In the spring, children in PES schools had improvements of 21%; those in TT and CO schools gained 19% and 13%, respectively. Gain scores were significant for catching (p = .005) and throwing (p = .008). Intervention effects did not differ by gender or grade. Adjusting for condition, boys made significantly greater gains than girls. The results indicate that children’s manipulative skills can be improved by quality physical education programs delivered by PE specialists and classroom teachers with substantial training.
Toby Woolway and Chris Harwood
Understanding the practitioner attributes that influence consumers’ preferences is of vital importance to licensing organizations and individual practitioners in the field of sport psychology (Hamberger & Iso-Ahola, 2006; Van Raalte, Brewer, Matheson & Brewer, 1996). This study examined consumer preferences toward three professional titles (sport psychologist, life coach, and neuro-linguistic programming practitioner) and a range of other practitioner characteristics, as well as the extent to which a brief intervention impacted these preferences. Following an assessment of current preferences among athletes (N = 229), researchers presented brief, educational vignettes formed of enhanced information regarding the three professions. Conjoint analysis was used to determine the relative importance of practitioner attributes pre- and postintervention. Interpersonal skills emerged as the most important attribute before intervention. Several significant, postintervention changes emerged in consumer preferences for practitioners, including an increased salience of professional title. The findings are discussed with an emphasis on implications for the training, professional development, and marketing of practitioners to potential clients.
Mary L. Henninger
The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced the career trajectories of veteran urban secondary physical education teachers. The careers of these teachers were studied from the theoretical perspectives of teacher efficacy and teacher career development. Participants included 9 secondary urban physical education teachers (4 females and 5 males). Data were collected using 7 qualitative methods. Data analysis involved constant comparison through the processes of open and axial coding followed by a cross-case comparison (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Findings indicated that organizational contexts of these veteran urban physical education teachers played the most salient role in shaping their beliefs and behaviors. Although the organizational contextual factors reported were similar across this group of teachers, individual responses differed greatly. These differences delineated teachers into two groups of stayers: lifers and troupers. Knowledge of workplace conditions’ specific effects on teachers’ career trajectories provides valuable information for initial preparation of novice teachers and for further professional development.
Susan E. Inglis
The status and representation of women in university sport continues to be an area of concern and responsibility for the athletic administrator. This paper presents a description of the major philosophical and organizational changes that have occurred with the governance of women’s intercollegiate sport. Data from American and Canadian studies describing the involvement patterns of women in university sport are presented, and areas for reform that will increase the status and representation of women in university sport are put forward. Three areas for reform presented include (a) securing commitment to change, (b) improving professional preparations in career planning for women at high school and university levels who aspire to careers in athletics, as well as professional development for women currently involved in athletic administration, and (c) gaining support from academic areas in the identification of effective, positive change for women in university sport.
Brendan Cropley, Andrew Miles, Sheldon Hanton and Ailsa Niven
This article offers an exploration of factors that influence the effectiveness of applied sport psychology delivery through reflection on a series of consulting experiences. Knowledge gained by a British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) trainee sport psychologist (Cropley), through a process of reflective practice during the first year of supervised experience, is presented around a number of themes that have emerged from current literature regarding the characteristics of effective service providers (A. Anderson, A. Miles, P. Robinson, & C. Mahoney, 2004). It is argued that reflection improves self-awareness and generates knowledge in action that can enhance the delivery of applied sport psychology. Support is therefore provided for the adoption of reflective practice as a tool for personal and professional development.
Jeffery P. Simons and Mark B. Andersen
The history and development of applied sport psychology practice has not received the same attention and documentation as that of academic sport psychology. After a brief introduction to the literature on the history and professional development of applied sport psychology, some personal perspectives from consultants who have been practicing “in the field” over the last two to four decades are provided. Eleven well-known practitioners discuss how they got started, how their consulting has developed, what significant experiences they have had, and what lessons they have learned along the way. They relate their views on the progression of professional practice and what the future may hold. Finally, they offer some encouragement, cautions, and words of wisdom for fellow and future colleagues in sport psychology consulting.