interval was coded. All observations had an average duration of 20 minutes, and and each target child was observed the full duration of parkour recess. Procedure Intervention A cluster randomized controlled trial was used to examine the differences between the 2 conditions. A total of 14 second
Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt
AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis
criteria were a history of knee injury or surgery, and other degenerative conditions such as severe knee osteoarthritis. The procedures were explained to the participants prior to obtaining informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Figure 1 —Flow diagram of randomized control trial
Nancy M. Gell and Danielle D. Wadsworth
The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women.
Eightyseven participants were randomized to an intervention (n = 41) or control group (n = 46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately 3 text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity.
ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps per day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, P = .01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, P = .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared with baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5 vs. 60.3, P = .02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, P = .03).
Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared with a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost-effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior.
Matthew P. Buman, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Joseph M. Dzierzewski, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Christina S. McCrae, Beverly L. Roberts and Michael Marsiske
Using peer volunteers as delivery agents may improve translation of evidence-based physical activity promotion programs for older adults. This study examined whether tailored support from older peer volunteers could improve initiation and long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.
Participants were randomized to 2 16-week, group-based programs: (1) peer-delivered, theory-based support for physical activity behavior change; or (2) an intervention typically available in community settings (basic education, gym membership, and pedometer for self-monitoring), attention-matched with health education. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed via daily self-report logs at baseline, at the end of the intervention (16 weeks), and at follow-up (18 months), with accelerometry validation (RT3) in a random subsample.
Seven peer volunteers and 81 sedentary adults were recruited. Retention at the end of the trial was 85% and follow-up at 18 months was 61%. Using intent-to-treat analyses, at 16 weeks, both groups had similar significant improvements in MVPA. At 18 months, the group supplemented with peer support had significantly more MVPA.
Trained peer volunteers may enhance long-term maintenance of physical activity gains from a community-based intervention. This approach has great potential to be adapted and delivered inexpensively in community settings.
Richard A. Boileau, Edward McAuley, Demetra Demetriou, Naveen K. Devabhaktuni, Gregory L. Dykstra, Jeffery Katula, Jane Nelson, Angelo Pascale, Melissa Pena and Heidi-Mai Talbot
A trial was conducted to examine the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. Previously sedentary participants, age 60-75 years, were randomly assigned to either AET treatment or a control group for 6 months. The AET consisted of walking for 40 min three times/week at an intensity that elevated heart rate to 65% of maximum heart rate reserve. The control group performed a supervised stretching program for 40 min three times/week. CR fitness was assessed before and after the treatments during a grade-incremented treadmill walking test. Both absolute and relative peak V̇O2 significantly increased (p < .01) in the AET group, whereas they decreased modestly in the control group. Maximum treadmill time increased significantly (p < .01) in the AET group relative to the control group. These results indicate that CR fitness as measured by peak V̇O2 modestly improves in the elderly with a moderate-intensity, relatively long-term aerobic exercise program.
David R. Lubans, Chris M. Mundey, Nicole J. Lubans and Chris C. Lonsdale
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a resistancetraining (RT) and lifestyle-activity program for sedentary older adults. Eligible participants (N = 44) were randomized to an 8-wk intervention or a control group. The primary outcome was lower body muscle strength, and participants completed a range of secondary outcomes. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for lower body muscle strength (difference = 3.9 repetitions [reps], 95% CI = 2.0–5.8 reps; p < .001; d = 1.0). Changes in secondary outcomes were generally small and not statistically significant. Attendance and program satisfaction were both high. A combined elastic-tubing RT and lifestyle-activity program delivered in the community setting is an efficacious and feasible approach to improve health in sedentary older adults.
Terttu Parkatti, Jarmo Perttunen and Phyllis Wacker
This study examined the effects of an instructed structured Nordic walking (NW) exercise program on the functional capacity of older sedentary people. Volunteers were randomly assigned to an NW group (68.2 ± 3.8 yr old) or control group (69.9 ± 3.0 yr old). Before and at the end of the 9-wk intervention, functional tests and 2-dimensional ground-reaction-force (GRF) patterns of normal (1.40 m/s) and fast (1.94 m/s) walking speeds were measured. The intervention included a 60-min supervised NW session on an inside track twice a week for 9 wk. The mean changes in functional tests differed between groups significantly. Gait analyses showed no significant differences between the groups on any GRF parameters for walking speed either before or after the intervention. The study showed that NW has favorable effects on functional capacity in older people and is a suitable form of exercise for them.
Gal Dubnov-Raz, Harri Hemilä, Avner H. Cohen, Barak Rinat, Lauryn Choleva and Naama W. Constantini
Observational studies identified associations between vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D > 30ng·ml−1) and risk of upper respiratory infection (URI). Swimmers are highly prone to URIs, which might hinder their performance. The aim of this study was to examine if vitamin D3 supplementation reduces URI burden in vitamin D-insufficient swimmers. Fifty-five competitive adolescent swimmers with vitamin D insufficiency were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (2,000IU·d4) or placebo for 12 winter weeks. A URI symptom questionnaire was completed weekly. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radio-immunoassay before and after supplementation. We used linear regression to examine the relation between the change in 25(OH)D concentrations during the trial, and the duration and severity of URIs. There were no between-group differences in the frequency, severity, or duration of URIs. Exploratory analyses revealed that in the placebo group only, the change in 25(OH)D concentrations during the trial was highly associated with the duration of URIs (r = −0.90,p > .001), and moderately associated with the severity of URIs (r = −0.65,p = .043). The between-group differences for duration were highly significant. Vitamin D3 supplementation in adolescent swimmers with vitamin D insufficiency did not reduce URI burden. However, larger decreases in serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with significantly longer and more severe URI episodes.
Joanne E. Perry, Michael Ross, Jeremiah Weinstock and Terri Weaver
Research has supported mindfulness as a predictor of athletic success. This study used a parallel trial design to examine the benefit of a brief one-session mindfulness training for performance on an individual, nonpacing, closed skill athletic task (i.e., golf putting). All participants (N = 65) answered questionnaires and engaged in two trials of the putting task. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group using a simple randomization strategy. Between trials, the intervention group received a mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness intervention included psychoeducation, reflection upon previous sport experiences, an experiential exercise, and putting applications. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the intervention group exhibited more successful outcomes on objective putting performance, flow state experience, and state anxiety (p < .05). Results suggest mindfulness may prevent performance deterioration and could produce psychological benefits after a brief training session.
Wei-Cheng Chao, Jui-Chi Shih, Kuan-Chung Chen, Ching-Lin Wu, Nai-Yuan Wu and Chien-Sheng Lo
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of functional movement screen (FMS)-based functional exercise in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Design: Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. Setting: Institutional, single center. Patients: A total of 38 patients who underwent ACLR were recruited and randomly assigned to group 1 (n = 19) or group 2 (n = 19). Interventions: Both groups received 6-month routine rehabilitation immediately after surgery. From the postoperative fourth to sixth month, group 1 received FMS-based functional exercise plus routine rehabilitation and group 2 received routine rehabilitation only. The FMS-based functional exercise was individualized and customized functional corrective exercise, which was designed based on the 3-month postoperative FMS results. The frequency of rehabilitation was 1 hour per session, twice a week, for a total duration of 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: At 3 and 6 months postoperatively, patients were evaluated by FMS scoring, Lysholm Knee Score, and International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 Score. Results: After the intervention, both groups had significantly increased FMS, Lysholm Knee Score, and International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 score. Group 1 had significantly greater changes in FMS (median: 4 vs 3, P < .001), Lysholm Knee Score (median: 24 vs 16, P = .001), and International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 Score (median: 22 vs 8, P < .001) than group 2. Conclusion: The application of FMS-based functional exercise to patients after ACLR resulted in significant improvement in knee function and movements. The authors suggested integrating FMS evaluation and FMS-based training into routine post-ACLR rehabilitation programs.