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Barry Braun

The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.

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Mitchell L. Cordova, Lisa S. Jutte and J. Ty Hopkins

Many types of rehabilitation exercises are used to reestablish lower extremity neuromuscular function and strength following ankle injuries. It has not been established which exercise induces the greatest leg muscle activity, which might allow patients to recover more quickly from their injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to establish which exercises induce the most muscle activity in the medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA), as measured by integrated electromyography (I-EMG). Participants (N = 24, age = 22 ± .59, mass = 63.5 ± 2.1 kg, ht = 165.7 ± 1.2 cm) conducted five repetitions of each of four exercise conditions for 30 s: one-legged stance (OLS), OLS on trampoline (OLST), T-Band kicks (TBK), and OLS perturbations (OLSP). It was found that the TBK exercise induces greater I-EMG in all three muscles, the OLST exercise stimulates more I-EMG activity in the MG and TA, and the OLSP exercise induces greater I-EMG activity in the TA.

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Martin J. Kelley

Rehabilitation following injury or surgery for the athlete who employs overhead motion is extremely challenging. Shoulder pathophysiology and the repetitive intense demands required during athletic activity need to be fully appreciated for successful rehabilitation. This article discusses new anatomic and biomechanical concepts that require the rehabilitation specialist to reconsider previously accepted notions. Treatment rationale is discussed based on these concepts. Rehabilitation principles and phases are described in a sequentially progressive program based on tissue reactivity and signs and symptoms.

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Hooman Minoonejad, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani, Reza Rajabi, Erik A. Wikstrom and Ali Sharifnezhad

basketball players during a single-limb jump landing. This program also results in significant improvements in multiple patient-reported outcomes. These results suggest that the hop stabilization program could be implemented in the overall rehabilitation program for patients with CAI. Acknowledgments The

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Kellie C. Huxel Bliven and Kelsey J. Picha

It has been well over a decade since the Journal of Sport Rehabilitation published a shoulder thematic issue; thus, we are excited to highlight current research of colleagues contributing rehabilitation-focused evidence in this area. Our goal is that the compilation of articles presented here

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Doyglas R. Keskula, Jewell B. Duncan and Virginia L. Davis

This paper describes the rehabilitation of a patient following a medial meniscus transplant. Both preoperative and postoperative history and relevant physical findings are presented. Rehabilitation goals and the corresponding treatment plan are discussed, with an emphasis on functional outcomes. A general framework for treatment addressing impairment and functional goals is outlined. Progression of the rehabilitation program was based on surgical precautions and the patient's tolerance to the exercise progression. This case study demonstrates that appropriate surgical intervention combined with a properly designed rehabilitation program contributed to the improved functional abilities of this patient.

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Kyoungyoun Park, Thomas Ksiazek and Bernadette Olson

impairments and completed individualized vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) demonstrated improved patient outcomes. 13 These VRT programs focused on promoting vestibular adaptation and substitution to enhance gaze and postural stability, improved vertigo, and returned patients to productive activities

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Woubeshet Ayenew, Emily C. Gathright, Ellen M. Coffey, Amber Courtney, Jodi Rogness and Andrew M. Busch

established psychiatric treatment settings may mitigate some of the access-related barriers to behavior change in SMI populations. Indeed, a behavioral intervention that connected to patients through outpatient psychiatric rehabilitation programs demonstrated promising effects on weight loss 9 and

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Jessica J. DeGaetano, Andrew T. Wolanin, Donald R. Marks and Shiloh M. Eastin

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of psychosocial factors and psychological flexibility on rehabilitation protocol adherence in a sample of injured collegiate athletes. Self-report measures were given to injured athletes before the start of a physical rehabilitation protocol. Upon completion of rehabilitation, each athlete was assessed by the chief athletic trainer using a measure of rehabilitation adherence. Correlational analyses and bootstrapped logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether broad psychosocial factors and level of psychological flexibility predicted engagement and adherence to a rehabilitation protocol. Psychological flexibility, as measured on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd ed.; Bond et al., 2011), contributed significantly to the overall logistic regression model. Study findings suggested that assessment of psychological flexibility could give medical providers a way to evaluate both quickly and quantitatively potentially problematic behavioral responding among injured athletes, allowing for more effective adherence monitoring.

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Peggy A. Houglum

When soft tissue is injured, it must follow a complex healing process. The sports medicine specialist delivering care to an injured athlete should have an appreciation and understanding of the phases and timing of the healing process so that appropriate, efficient, and effective rehabilitation program may be established. This paper presents an overview of the chemical and cellular activity involved in soft tissue healing, with emphasis on those aspects that can be affected by a rehabilitation program. Outside factors commonly used in sports injury care and how they may influence tissue healing are addressed. Guidelines are presented for establishing a sports rehabilitation program based on the physiological effects of the healing process. Various aspects of a rehabilitation program must be carefully coordinated with the timing of tissue healing and designed in a logical sequence to permit successful rehabilitation of the injured athlete in an optimal and efficient manner.