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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

discriminate the different levels of SCI will aid in the choice of intervention, which characteristics about strength or functional independence should be prioritized for that level of injury, and which can be approached similarly. Given the different aspects that could affect the rehabilitation process after

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Doyglas R. Keskula, Jewell B. Duncan and Virginia L. Davis

This paper describes the rehabilitation of a patient following a medial meniscus transplant. Both preoperative and postoperative history and relevant physical findings are presented. Rehabilitation goals and the corresponding treatment plan are discussed, with an emphasis on functional outcomes. A general framework for treatment addressing impairment and functional goals is outlined. Progression of the rehabilitation program was based on surgical precautions and the patient's tolerance to the exercise progression. This case study demonstrates that appropriate surgical intervention combined with a properly designed rehabilitation program contributed to the improved functional abilities of this patient.

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Kellie C. Huxel Bliven and Kelsey J. Picha

It has been well over a decade since the Journal of Sport Rehabilitation published a shoulder thematic issue; thus, we are excited to highlight current research of colleagues contributing rehabilitation-focused evidence in this area. Our goal is that the compilation of articles presented here

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Kyoungyoun Park, Thomas Ksiazek and Bernadette Olson

impairments and completed individualized vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) demonstrated improved patient outcomes. 13 These VRT programs focused on promoting vestibular adaptation and substitution to enhance gaze and postural stability, improved vertigo, and returned patients to productive activities

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Peggy A. Houglum

When soft tissue is injured, it must follow a complex healing process. The sports medicine specialist delivering care to an injured athlete should have an appreciation and understanding of the phases and timing of the healing process so that appropriate, efficient, and effective rehabilitation program may be established. This paper presents an overview of the chemical and cellular activity involved in soft tissue healing, with emphasis on those aspects that can be affected by a rehabilitation program. Outside factors commonly used in sports injury care and how they may influence tissue healing are addressed. Guidelines are presented for establishing a sports rehabilitation program based on the physiological effects of the healing process. Various aspects of a rehabilitation program must be carefully coordinated with the timing of tissue healing and designed in a logical sequence to permit successful rehabilitation of the injured athlete in an optimal and efficient manner.

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Jessica J. DeGaetano, Andrew T. Wolanin, Donald R. Marks and Shiloh M. Eastin

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of psychosocial factors and psychological flexibility on rehabilitation protocol adherence in a sample of injured collegiate athletes. Self-report measures were given to injured athletes before the start of a physical rehabilitation protocol. Upon completion of rehabilitation, each athlete was assessed by the chief athletic trainer using a measure of rehabilitation adherence. Correlational analyses and bootstrapped logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether broad psychosocial factors and level of psychological flexibility predicted engagement and adherence to a rehabilitation protocol. Psychological flexibility, as measured on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd ed.; Bond et al., 2011), contributed significantly to the overall logistic regression model. Study findings suggested that assessment of psychological flexibility could give medical providers a way to evaluate both quickly and quantitatively potentially problematic behavioral responding among injured athletes, allowing for more effective adherence monitoring.

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Woubeshet Ayenew, Emily C. Gathright, Ellen M. Coffey, Amber Courtney, Jodi Rogness and Andrew M. Busch

established psychiatric treatment settings may mitigate some of the access-related barriers to behavior change in SMI populations. Indeed, a behavioral intervention that connected to patients through outpatient psychiatric rehabilitation programs demonstrated promising effects on weight loss 9 and

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer J. Hamson-Utley, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Cindra Kamphoff, Taru Lintunen, Brian Hemmings and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation.

Objective:

To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined.

Design:

Cross-sectional design.

Setting:

College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study.

Participants:

A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study.

Main Outcome Measures:

As part of a larger study on athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation.

Results:

Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist.

Conclusions:

The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on educating and training athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals on the effectiveness of mental training in the injury rehabilitation context.

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Lance B. Green

The purpose of this treatise is to provide an educational text that (a) cites existing literature supporting a mind-body paradigm for rehabilitation from psychophysiological and psychomotor perspectives, (b) demonstrates the application of imagery techniques within the chronology of an athletic injury, and (c) describes the performance-related criteria to which an athlete can compare his or her progress during rehabilitation. The chronology includes the period of time preceding the injury, the attention given to the athlete immediately following the injury, and the subsequent rehabilitation program leading to the athlete’s return to practice and competition. Examples of imagery experientials are used to illustrate its application throughout the chronology.

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Chih-Hung Chen, Ming-Chang Jeng, Chin-Ping Fung, Ji-Liang Doong and Tien-Yow Chuang

Context:

Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined.

Objective:

To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation.

Design:

An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment.

Setting:

Hospital laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury.

Intervention:

A designed rehabilitation therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire.

Results:

The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension.

Conclusion:

A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.