The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported exercise status (exercise, nonexercise) and ambulatory status (aid, no aid) discriminate between balance performance and balance self-efficacy of older adults, ages 65 to 95 years. Participants were 14 males and 46 females in a retirement home that contained a supervised fitness center. An activities-specific balance confidence scale and three balance performance tests yielded data. Data from males and females were combined because independent t tests revealed no significant gender differences. The Mann Whitney U test revealed that (a) exercisers (M age = 83.4) scored significantly higher than nonexercisers (M age = 83.7) on all measures, and (b) nonaid users (M age = 83.5) scored significantly higher than aid users (M age = 83.7). Findings indicate that regular exercise (at least 30 min per day, 3 days per week) and ambulation without a cane or walker are descriptors of older adults with good balance performance and high balance self-efficacy.
Suzanne C. Hoeppner and James H. Rimmer
Jean M. Williams and Vikki Krane
Self-report measures of psychological states are commonly used in sport psychology research and practice, yet the possibility of response bias due to social desirability (repressive defensiveness) often has been overlooked. The present study was designed to examine whether or not a significant relationship exists between social desirability and competitive trait anxiety and the CSAI-2 subscales measuring state somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence. The participants were 58 female collegiate golfers representing 13 NCAA Division I universities. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that competitive trait anxiety (−.24), self-confidence (.45, .38), and cognitive anxiety (−.24) appeared to be influenced by social desirability distortion. If the present findings are replicated in future studies using the SCAT, CSAI-2, and other inventories, the field of sport psychology may need to reexamine some of the theoretical and application conclusions drawn from previous research in which no attempt was made to eliminate data from subjects who may have distorted their responses.
Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel
Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) >90/100, examined in the clinic, to ensure a population without significant self-reported limitations. Measures Knee osteoarthritis Knee OA was assessed with radiographs. If the subject self-indicated any knowledge of previous signs of OA, the affected leg was used for
Johanna M. Hoch, Cori W. Sinnott, Kendall P. Robinson, William O. Perkins and Jonathan W. Hartman
-oriented outcomes are used to subjectively assess a patient’s well-being and function and are often categorized into generic, region, and dimension-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). 3 Clinician-oriented outcomes (CBOs) can be utilized to assess the effects of the health condition at the body
Crystal L. Coolbaugh and David A. Hawkins
Wearable accelerometer-based activity monitors (AMs) are used to estimate energy expenditure and ground reaction forces in free-living environments, but a lack of standardized calibration and data reporting methods limits their utility. The objectives of this study were to (1) design an inexpensive and easily reproducible AM testing system, (2) develop a standardized calibration method for accelerometer-based AMs, and (3) evaluate the utility of the system and accuracy of the calibration method. A centrifuge-type device was constructed to apply known accelerations (0-8g) to each sensitive axis of 30 custom and two commercial AMs. Accelerometer data were recorded and matrix algebra and a least squares solution were then used to determine a calibration matrix for the custom AMs to convert raw accelerometer output to units of g’s. Accuracy was tested by comparing applied and calculated accelerations for custom and commercial AMs. AMs were accurate to within 4% of applied accelerations. The relatively inexpensive AM testing system (< $100) and calibration method has the potential to improve the sharing of AM data, the ability to compare data from different studies, and the accuracy of AM-based models to estimate various physiological and biomechanical quantities of interest in field-based assessments of physical activity.
basketball magazine that arguably embodied the intersection between the culture of hip-hop music and young players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) that emerged in the 1990s, he was ready to embrace his passion for all sports. Accepting the editor-in-chief position at Bleacher Report, a high
Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Stéphane Sinnapah, Olivier Hue and Guillaume R. Coudevylle
, 2015 ; O’Reilly & Spruijt-Metz, 2013 ). Recent studies have shown that texting increases certain domains of self-reported physical activity ( Antoine Parker & Ellis, 2016 ; Kim & Glanz, 2013 ; Muller, Khoo, & Morris, 2016 ). For example, Robin et al. ( 2017 ) showed that guided imagery texts
Anthony Rossi, Tina Claiborne and Jamie Fetter
proximal aorta. 4 , 5 This case study reports on a rare event in which an athlete with BAV disease remained undiagnosed until his college freshman year. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends review of a careful personal and family history as well as a focused physical examination prior to
Allana G.W. LeBlanc and Ian Janssen
We examined differences between objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) measures of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. Participants included 2761 youth aged 12–19 years. Within each sex and race group, objective and self-reported measures of MVPA were poorly correlated (R 2 = .01–.10). Self-reported MVPA values were higher than objective values (median: 42.4 vs. 15.0 min/d). 65.4% of participants over-reported their MVPA by 35 min/d. The difference between self-reported and objective measures was not influenced by sex, age, or race. There was, however, a systematic difference such that inactive participants over-reported their MVPA to the greatest extent.
Yannis Manios, Anthony Kafatos and George Markakis
Heart rate monitoring was used to evaluate the validity and reliability of 2 proxy report measures in assessing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MYPA) in 39 six-year-old children. Significant positive correlations were found between the proxy measures and corresponding heart rate data for school hours and leisure time, respectively (teacher reports, r = .58, p < .001; parent reports, r = .71 to .81, p < .001), but these decreased when each proxy measure was compared with heart rate data collated over a 3-day period (teacher reports, r = .40, p = .01; parent reports, r = .68, p < .001). Repeating the measurements gave a positive test-retest reliability coefficient of r = .84 (p < .001) and r = .64 (p < .001) for teacher and parent reports, respectively. The results indicate that both proxy reports can be useful tools in assessing MVPA in young children but that leisure-time activity reports provide a better basis for extrapolation in assessing weekly MVPA.