We can adjust an ongoing movement to a change in the target’s position with a latency of about 100 ms, about half of the time that is needed to start a new movement in response to the same change in target position (reaction time). In this opinion paper, we discuss factors that could explain the difference in latency between initiating and adjusting a movement in response to target displacements. We consider the latency to be the sum of the durations of various stages in information processing. Many of these stages are identical for adjusting and initiating a movement; however, for movement initiation, it is essential to detect that something has changed to respond, whereas adjustments to movements can be based on updated position information without detecting that the position has changed. This explanation for the shorter latency for movement adjustments also explains why we can respond to changes that we do not detect.
Jeroen B.J. Smeets, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes and Eli Brenner
Matthias Bluemke, Ralf Brand, Geoffrey Schweizer and Daniela Kahlert
Models employed in exercise psychology highlight the role of reflective processes for explaining behavior change. However, as discussed in social cognition literature, information-processing models also consider automatic processes (dual-process models). To examine the relevance of automatic processing in exercise psychology, we used a priming task to assess the automatic evaluations of exercise stimuli in physically active sport and exercise majors (n = 32), physically active nonsport majors (n = 31), and inactive students (n = 31). Results showed that physically active students responded faster to positive words after exercise primes, whereas inactive students responded more rapidly to negative words. Priming task reaction times were successfully used to predict reported amounts of exercise in an ordinal regression model. Findings were obtained only with experiential items reflecting negative and positive consequences of exercise. The results illustrate the potential importance of dual-process models in exercise psychology.
Robert J. Rotella and Douglas S. Newburg
Some athletes who are benched may experience identity crises, the impact of which may be long-lasting and far-reaching for them. Case-study interviews with three athletes who have experienced such crises are presented. The similarities in the case studies suggest that the bench/identity crisis may be a relatively common phenomenon. Suggestions are offered for athletes, coaches, and sport psychology consultants to help respond to such experiences effectively.
This paper responds to the Klein and Mandle papers, placing them in the context of a growing literature. It argues that noncustomary sports practices need to be examined in their own cultural settings rather than from the standards of the developed world. It refers to issues of ethnographic practice, and argues that the richest understandings will proceed from crossdisciplinary reference to fields such as history and anthropology.
Ali Jalalvand and Mehrdad Anbarian
, the vertical loading rate is associated with multiple injuries. 40 Conclusions Patients with CLBP will respond differently to LEF. They may have less ability to protect themselves from landing. In addition, knowing about the effects of fatigue on the altered biomechanics of landing can be useful in
Packianathan Chelladurai and Etsuko Ogasawara
Male coaches from NCAA Division I (n = 297), Division III (n = 294), and Japanese universities (n = 254) responded to the Coach Satisfaction Questionnaire measuring satisfaction with supervision, coaching job, autonomy, facilities, media and community support, pay, team performance, amount of work, colleagues, athletes’ academic performance, and job security; and Blau, Paul, and St. John's (1993) General Index of Work Commitment. Japanese coaches expressed significantly lower satisfaction than American coaches with seven facets (supervision, coaching job, autonomy, team performance, colleagues, athletes' academic performance, and job security). American coaches were significantly more committed to their occupation than the Japanese coaches who were significantly more committed to their organizations than American coaches.
Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Randy C. Battochio
Adaptation is defined here as the end point in a process, when people respond in a positive manner to hardship, threat, and challenge, including monumental sport tests, such as international tournaments. Recently, there have been formal research investigations where adaptation has been considered as a provisional framework, with a more formal structure of pathways. Sport scholars have studied Olympic and professional athletes, provided support for a theoretical framework, and identified provisional substrategies for each pathway. In this article the authors situate adaptation within a larger discourse of related interventions, including coping and self-regulation. Subsequently, adaptation is proposed as a comprehensive intervention strategy for elite athletes during monumental sport environments.
Jeanne Adèle Kentel and David Ramsankar
Coaches are in a strong position to lay the groundwork for positive outcomes and attitudes in sports. In this paper we attempt to uncover ways in which coaching and sport pedagogy might be informed through our perspectives as parents of two young girls. As a father and a mother from two different families we examine the complexities of competition among the young. We begin to theorize about the ways young people might contribute to the discourse about competition in sport and ways coaches, coach educators and researchers might respond to enact potential reform.
Lynette Adamson and Glennys Parker
This study assessed a range of activities reported by older women in Australia. Women between 75 and 81 years of age (N = 3,955) from the older cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health responded to a request in a self-report survey for additional information concerning their health. Of these 3,955 women, 509 reported taking part in a variety of activities. Qualitative analysis of responses identified 55 coded categories of activities that were subsequently classified into four major themes: physical activities, creative pursuits, lifestyle, and social interaction. The data show that these older women are taking part in a wide range of activities.
The daily routine of local sports broadcasters is as busy as it has ever been, as they are expected to anchor the evening sportscast, write stories, film games, and update the station Web site. Twitter has added yet another duty to their job, but they do not seem to mind this assignment. In a survey of local sports broadcasters throughout the U.S., over 90% of those who responded to the survey said they either “liked” or “loved” Twitter. In addition, more than 80% of respondents said that they did not consider using Twitter at work to be a burden. Implications regarding extra-role behaviors and work engagement are discussed.