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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Louise Davis and Sophia Jowett

Grounded in Bowlby’s (1969/1982, 1988) attachment theory, this study aimed to explore (a) the pervasiveness of the three main functions of attachment within the context of the coach-athlete relationship, (b) the associations of athletes’ attachment styles with such important variables as satisfaction with the relationship and satisfaction with the sport, and (c) the process by which athletes’ attachment styles and satisfaction with sport are associated. Data were collected through self-report measures of attachment functions and styles as well as relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction from 309 student athletes (males = 150, females = 159) whose age ranged from 18 to 28 years (Mage = 19.9, SD = 1.58 years). Athletes’ mean scores indicated that the coach was viewed as an attachment figure fulfilling all three functions of secure base, safe haven, and proximity maintenance. Bivariate correlations indicated that athletes’ avoidant and anxious styles of attachment with the coach were negatively correlated with both relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction. Mediational regression analysis revealed that athletes’ satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship may be a process that links athletes’ attachment styles with levels of satisfaction with sport. The findings from this study highlight the potential theoretical and practical utility of attachment theory in studying relationships within the sport context.

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Catherine B. Woods, Norah M. Nelson, Donal J. O’Gorman, Eimear Foley and Niall M. Moyna

Background:

The Take PART study—Physical Activity Research for Teenagers—was undertaken to assess (1) physical activity and sedentary behaviors, (2) indices of health and fitness, and (3) to provide information, from a social ecological perspective, on the correlates of physical activity in a large sample of 15- to 17-year-old Irish adolescents. This manuscript outlines the rationale and methodology of the Take PART study.

Methods:

A sample of 4720 students (mean age = 16.03 years ± 0.66, range 15 to 17 years; 49.5% female) participated. Fifty participants were assessed during each 3-hour school visit, with a ratio of 1 researcher to 10 students. Standardized testing procedures and extensive researcher training ensured that intertester and intratester reliability for all physical measures was ≥.85. The height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness protocols are explained. The questionnaire used well-known, valid, and reliable self-report measures. Where appropriate, additional psychometric testing was undertaken.

Conclusions:

Take PART is a school-based study. Its methods are simple, easy to replicate, financially viable, and scientifically valid. Its unique dataset will allow the evaluation of a social ecological approach as a viable option for improving understanding of youth inactivity. Ultimately, this knowledge will assist in successful intervention design.

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JoAnn Reis and Anne Marie Bird

This two part investigation tested whether or not a self-report measure of broad or narrow attentional style (i.e., the BET and RED subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style-TAIS) could predict cue-processing ability on a task that required processing of peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, it was hypothesized that broad attenders would be superior to narrow attenders. Two separate probe techniques were used to measure peripheral cue processing. Results indicated marginal support for the prediction on the first probe and strong support on the second probe. In Experiment 2, subjects received either positive or negative false feedback in an attempt to manipulate level of anxiety and to observe the subsequent effects on the cue-processing ability of broad and narrow attenders. Broad attenders who received positive feedback processed peripheral cues faster than all other subjects. Findings were discussed within the framework of Kahneman's capacity theory of attention and the desirability of employing a precise operational definition of attention within individual difference research.

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Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Klaus Gebel and David Revalds Lubans

Background:

According to social-cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy affects health behavior both directly and indirectly by influencing how individuals perceive their environment. This study examines whether perceptions of home and school environment mediate the association between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in adolescent girls.

Methods:

Baseline data from the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT) was used for this study. Grade 8 female students (n = 357) were recruited from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia. PA was assessed using accelerometers, and sedentary behavior by self-report and accelerometers. Self-reported measures were used for perceived home and school environment and self-efficacy. Multilevel regression models were calculated to determine if the perceived environment mediated the relationship between self-efficacy with both PA and sedentary behavior.

Results:

The perceptions of the school and home environment did not mediate the relationship between PA self-efficacy and PA behavior or sedentary behavior.

Conclusion:

The mediated models were not supported for PA or sedentary behavior. However, other results of this paper may be helpful for future theory development and practice. More research is needed to understand behaviors in unique populations such as this.

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Justin B. Moore, Michael W. Beets, Sara F. Morris and Mary Bea Kolbe

Background:

Most youth fail to achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily while engaging in excessive amounts of sedentary behaviors. The objective of this investigation was to identify modifiable factors associated with meeting MVPA recommendations or engaging in greater than 55% of observed time sedentary.

Methods:

Youth (N = 1005, 10.5 yrs, 52% girls) wore accelerometers with daily minutes of MVPA (≥ 2296 counts·min−1) classified as ≥ 60mins/d vs. < 60min/d of MVPA. Sedentary behavior (< 100 counts·min−1) was classified as < 55% or ≥ 55% of total wear-time. Two-level random effects logit survival models for repeated events (days of monitoring) examined the association of psychosocial self-report measures and demographic characteristics to meeting the MVPA recommendation and spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary.

Results:

Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays were associated with a decreased likelihood of meeting MVPA recommendations relative to Mondays. Wednesday thru Sunday were associated with a decreased likelihood of spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary. Being a boy, receiving transportation, and fewer reported barriers to physical activity were associated with meeting MVPA recommendations.

Conclusions:

Relatively few youth are engaging in recommended levels of physical activity. Provision of transportation and reduction of barriers to physical activity are relevant targets for physical activity promotion.

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

Background: Few studies have examined school physical activity policies to assess dose–response on student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between health-promoting physical activity policies in elementary schools and physical activity behavior. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, physical activity was assessed using self-report measures in fourth-grade students in Texas (N = 1958, x = 9.66 y) from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey. School policies were assessed using the number of health-promoting policies in place taken from the SPAN School Health Survey with principals and their proxies. Multiple linear regressions adjusted for student- and school-level confounders and school clustering were performed. Results: School physical activity policies were significantly associated with student-level physical activity behavior (P < .05), even after controlling for the student- and school-level confounding variables. The interactions between physical activity policy-by-economic disadvantage (P < .01) and between physical activity policy-by-geographic strata (P < .01) were both significant, with stronger direct effects of policies on student physical activity for economically disadvantaged schools and major urban schools. Conclusion: Results from this study provide evidence for the importance of school-based health policies and practices in potentially reducing health disparities, especially in low-income and urban schools.

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Megan S. Farris, Kerry S. Courneya, Rachel O’Reilly and Christine M. Friedenreich

Background: We previously reported no postintervention differences in quality of life and other psychosocial outcomes when comparing 12-month high versus moderate volume of aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Here, we report the 24-month follow-up for these outcomes. Methods: At 24-month follow-up, 333 out of 400 postmenopausal women were randomized to a year-long intervention of 150 (moderate) or 300 (high) minutes per week of aerobic exercise returned a battery of self-reported measures assessing quality of life, psychosocial outcomes, and sleep quality, also assessed at baseline and postintervention. Intention-to-treat analyses using linear models were conducted to determine the changes between baseline and 24-month follow-up. Results: No significant effects between moderate- and high-volume aerobic exercise groups were observed among any outcomes. There was some evidence of effect moderation by baseline body mass index in relation to quality of life, psychosocial outcomes, and sleep quality, where obese women benefitted from the moderate-volume exercise and nonobese women benefitted from the high-volume exercise prescription. Conclusion: Although high-volume aerobic exercise did not improve psychosocial outcomes when compared with moderate volume at the 24-month follow-up, we did observe potential effect of moderation between obese and nonobese women. Confirmation of these interactions is warranted in this population.

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Walter R. Bixby, Thomas W. Spalding and Bradley D. Hatfield

Electroencephalographic (EEG) and self-report measures of affect were obtained from 27 participants (14 F, 13 M) before, during, and following 30 min of continuous exercise at low and high intensities to determine the respective temporal courses of affective response. Mood was measured via a visual analog mood scale (VAMS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules (PANAS-PA and -NA), and EEG hemispheric asymmetry as obtained from three electrode pairs: F4-F3, F8-F7, and P4-P3. Participants reported higher VAMS and lower PANAS-NA scores during low-intensity exercise relative to baseline, and the higher scores were maintained during recovery. In contrast, they reported lower scores on the VAMS during high-intensity exercise relative to baseline that were subsequently elevated during recovery. Also, during high-intensity exercise the PANAS-NA scores were similar to baseline, but they were lower during recovery. Both the VAMS and PANAS-NA scores observed after exercise were similar regardless of intensity. Additionally, participants had higher PANAS-PA and EEG hemispheric asymmetry scores (i.e., F8-F7) during exercise at both intensities relative to baseline, then reported values similar to baseline levels on cessation of work. The magnitude of change from baseline for the PANAS-PA and EEG scores during exercise was similar regardless of exercise intensity.

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Jakob L. Vingren, James R. Morrow Jr., Elaine Trudelle-Jackson and Merly T. Mathew

Background:

Aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities are related to morbidities and mortality. Resistance exercise/strength training items are included in national surveys, but the manner in which muscle-strengthening activity is queried varies among these surveys.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to use different self-report measures to examine the prevalence of meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans regarding muscle-strengthening activities among women.

Methods:

We surveyed 606 community-dwelling women at 4 points in time across a 1.5- to 3-year time period to determine whether the respondents met the national physical activity guidelines for performing muscle-strengthening activities ≥ 2 days per week.

Results:

Results were consistent across time but depended on the manner in which the question was asked. If asked to reflect over the past month or a general question about the typical number of days engaged, approximately 40% of women reported engaging in ≥ 2 days per week of resistance exercise/strength training. However, when reports were obtained weekly for 13 weeks, only approximately 18% of respondents met the guidelines.

Conclusion:

Results indicate that the timing and nature of questioning can substantially influence the self-reported prevalence of muscle-strengthening physical activities for community-dwelling women.