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Cindy H.P. Sit, Caren H.L. Lau and Patricia Vertinsky

This study investigated the association between physical activity and self-perceptions such as body image, physical self-concept, and self-esteem among persons with an acquired physical disability in a non-Western population. Other personal variables such as gender and time of onset of disability were also examined. A convenience sample of 66 Hong Kong Chinese adults with an acquired physical disability were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires about their levels of physical activity and self-perceptions. Over 70% of the participants were not physically active enough to obtain health benefits. Contrary to studies focused on Western populations, the relationships between physical activity and self-perceptions were weak. The time of onset of disability, rather than activity level and gender, was more related to self-perceptions. The present study provides some evidence to advance our knowledge of self-perceptions in a non-Western population and highlights the importance of considering culture and social location in studying physical activity levels of those with an acquired physical disability.

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Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert

As career termination is an incisive event in life, it is therefore important to understand the effects of different types of retirement on an athlete’s biography. Thus, the present longitudinal study is concerned with the effects of career termination of professional national team-athletes on the development of psychopathological symptoms, locus of control, self-concept, and mood, with special consideration of the mediator variable “subjective control of event-onset.” Data were collected from 42 professional athletes (17 of whom experienced an unexpected dismissal and 4 voluntarily retired) using standardized questionnaires (SCL-90-R, ASTS, FKK) 10 days before event entrance (baseline-test), 10 days after, 3 weeks after, and 5.5 months after onset of career termination. Although the baseline data did not reveal personality differences between the groups, dismissed athletes showed significantly stronger psychological distress after event onset. They displayed a stronger initial reaction, a more severe crisis, and longer transition periods than the control group. Results are discussed in connection with the combination of social evaluative threat and forced failure during event onset and their strong effects on distress after career termination.

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Richard Cooke, Helena Trebaczyk, Peter Harris and Alison J. Wright

The present study tests whether a self-affirmation intervention (i.e., requiring an individual to focus on a valued aspect of their self-concept, such as honesty) can increase physical activity and change theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables linked to physical activity. Eighty young people completed a longitudinal intervention study. Baseline physical activity was assessed using the Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPAQ). Next, participants were randomly allocated to either a self-affirmation or a nonaffirmation condition. Participants then read information about physical activity and health, and completed measures of TPB variables. One week later, participants again completed LTPAQ and TPB items. At follow up, self-affirmed participants reported significantly more physical activity, more positive attitudes toward physical activity, and higher intentions to be physically active compared with nonaffirmed participants. Neither attitudes nor intentions mediated the effects of self-affirmation on physical activity. Self-affirmation can increase levels of physical activity and TPB variables. Self-affirmation interventions have the potential to become relatively simple methods for increasing physical activity levels.

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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt

multidimensional construct of physical self-concept ( Schmidt & Conzelmann, 2011 ; Schmidt, Valkanover, & Conzelmann, 2013 ; Schmidt, Valkanover, Roebers, & Conzelmann, 2013 ) that includes both physical competence and physical appearance and is associated with relevant health outcomes ( Carraro, Scarpa

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Bronagh McGrane, Danielle Powell, Sarahjane Belton and Johann Issartel

, & Powell, 2016 ; Belton, O’Brien, Meegan, Woods, & Issartel, 2014 ; Currie, Zanotti, Looze, Roberts, & Barnekow, 2012 ; Woods, Tannehill, Quinlan, Moyna, & Walsh, 2010 ). As stated by Welk and Eklund ( 2005 ), physical self-concept has been shown to influence a variety of health-related behaviors and

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Lisa M. Barnett, David R. Lubans, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon and Nicola D. Ridgers

self-concept or perception is associated with higher physical activity levels in children and adolescents ( Babic et al., 2014 ). Nested within the construct of physical self-concept are the sub-domains of strength, fitness, body perception, and perceived sports competence ( Fox & Corbin, 1990

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John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars

example, self-concept is a well-established hierarchical construct ( Beasley & Garn, 2013 ; Marsh, 1990 ). In hierarchical constructs, the separate domains are as important as the latent construct. In bifactor models, items reflect a general construct and specific factors, and these relationships can be

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee and Chris Lonsdale

risk of disease, 2 , 7 higher levels of psychological and emotional well-being, 2 , 3 , 6 , 7 greater school engagement, 5 greater motor skills, 2 , 7 more frequent prosocial behaviors, 2 , 3 and enhanced self-concept. 1 , 4 In addition, exhibiting positive physical activity behaviors early in

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Jerred Junqi Wang

number of bicycle lanes, and a renewal of cycling’s utilitarian value. In the conclusion of the book, Turpin points out that the consumption of bicycles reflects self-concepts held by consumers and prevalent trends in American culture, which is further illustrated by briefly reviewing the bicycle

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Melissa Bittner

and therapists alike ( Horvat, Block, Kelly, & Croce, 2019 ). Chapter 10 reviews common assessment tools and practices used to measure students’ behaviors, social skills, self-concept, play, and attitudes. Too often, many referrals for APE are based on behavior or social interaction challenges