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Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

The preservation and promotion of skeletal muscle mass and strength is essential for athletes and nonathletes alike; whether the goal is improved performance or maintaining one’s quality of life. Sufficient skeletal muscle is required for functional movement and also plays a vital role in whole

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

involved in the process of glycogen synthesis. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme responsible for the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) to the cell membrane when activated by skeletal muscle contraction ( Mu et al., 2001 ; Stapleton et al., 1996 ). AMPK

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Chantal A. Vella, Erin D. Michos, Dorothy D. Sears, Mary Cushman, Rachel B. Van Hollebeke, Michelle M. Wiest and Matthew A. Allison

, type 2 diabetes, functional disability, and premature death. 1 Skeletal muscle accounts for 40% of total body mass and is the main determinant of energy expenditure among sedentary individuals. Although regular physical activity is fundamental for preserving skeletal muscle mass, strength and function

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

league, rugby union, American football, and Australian rules football, which are further defined by physical contact interactions between athletes. Given the extreme physical demands of these sports, athletes are regularly exposed to skeletal muscle damage in response to stressors, such as high

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

The role of increased dietary protein intake in facilitating skeletal muscle adaptations associated with endurance training is now gaining acceptance ( Moore et al., 2014 ). Indeed, consuming protein before ( Coffey et al., 2011 ), during ( Hulston et al., 2011 ), and/or after ( Rowlands et

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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

passive alignment of the lower limb segments (ie, skeletal stiffness), and the resistive force conferred to muscle contractions (ie, muscular stiffness). 35 – 37 Theoretically, if the lower limb is positioned such that the line of gravity passes through all the joint centers, resistive forces to

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Erik Sesbreno, Gary Slater, Margo Mountjoy and Stuart D.R. Galloway

model to estimate body composition ( Drinkwater & Ross, 1980 ). The Drinkwater four-way fractionation model uses the unisex phantom model to partition total body mass into four compartments—FM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM; intramuscular adipose tissue included), bone mass, and residual mass ( Drinkwater

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Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan and Rudi Meir

to be undertaken. Therefore, this review seeks to inform future experiments of in vivo, voluntarily activated PS-ISO contraction modalities in human skeletal muscle. Methods The methodology for the systematic review followed the PRISMA statement. 35 Literature Search A systematic literature search of

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

differences in the established sexual dimorphisms in skeletal-muscle mass and potential for producing metabolic power, more recent investigations have shown relatively steady sex differences in performance over the past couple of decades. 4 – 6 Accordingly, an updated overview of sex differences in

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros and Stephen J. Bailey

effects of NO 3 − supplementation, include improvements in muscle vasodilation and blood flow, 3 metabolic responses, 4 and contractile force. 5 Moreover, it is well documented that type II, fast-twitch skeletal muscle is more hypoxic 3 and acidic 6 compared with type I, slow-twitch muscle during