This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern over mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn and Daniel G. Syrotuik
T. Michelle Magyar, Deborah L. Feltz and Ian P. Simpson
The purpose of this study was to examine individual (i.e., task self-efficacy, rowing experience, and goal orientations) and group/boat level (perceptions of motivational climate and boat size) determinants of collective efficacy in the sport of rowing. Participants were 154 male and female rowers ages 13 to 18 years (M = 16.19, SD = 1.29). Approximately 24 hours prior to the regional championship regatta, participants completed a demographic measure, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, and sport-specific individual and collective efficacy measures developed for the current study. Multilevel modeling revealed that task self-efficacy significantly predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy, while perceptions of a mastery climate significantly predicted average collective efficacy scores at the group level.
Theresa Bianco and Robert C. Eklund
There is an extensive body of research indicating that social support can contribute to health and well-being by reducing exposure to stress and enhancing coping efforts. The mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood, however, and confusion abounds as to the nature of social support. This paper examines some of the major conceptual issues relevant to the study of social support in the context of sport injury. Specific issues addressed include differences between (a) support activities and support messages, (b) perceived support and received support, and (c) support networks, support behaviors, and appraisals of support. The discussion includes an examination of the general and sport-specific social support research. Gaps in the research are identified and suggestions are made throughout the paper for investigating social support issues in sport.
Timothy R. Pineau, Carol R. Glass, Keith A. Kaufman and Darren R. Bernal
The present study explored self- and team-efficacy beliefs in rowers, examining the relations between efficacy beliefs, mindfulness, and flow. Fifty-eight rowers from nine teams completed sport-specific measures of self- and team-efficacy, along with questionnaires assessing mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport confidence. Self- and team-efficacy were significantly related to mindfulness, dispositional flow, and sport confidence. In addition, both self-efficacy and sport confidence mediated the association between both total mindfulness (and the describe dimension of mindfulness) and the challenge-skill balance dimension of flow. These results provide indirect support for a proposed model, which suggests that mindfulness may positively impact the integral challenge-skill balance aspect of flow in athletes through self-efficacy.
Semyon M. Slobounov, Robert Simon, Wayne Sebastianelli, Angela Carlson and William E. Buckley
A variety of assessment devices have been developed for scientific investigation on human movement that can also be used to assess the progress of a rehabilitation program. The present investigation was undertaken to show how this technology can be combined with the most aggressive type of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Advanced technology was used to assess the physical rehabilitation parameters of active range of motion (AROM) and sport-specific functional progression for an Olympic-caliber diver who had bilateral wrist problems. AROM was measured for both wrists using a Flock of Birds motion-tracking device, and functional progression was assessed with an Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc. force platform for measuring the center of pressure (CP) area. The results of the treatment were clinically favorable, with an increase in AROM and a decrease in the CP area for functional motor control. The technology provided useful information about the progress of a rehabilitation program.
Marc J. Philippon, Jesse C. Christensen and Michael S. Wahoff
To report the 4-phase rehabilitation progression of a professional athlete who underwent arthroscopic intra-articular repair of the hip after injury during the 2006–07 season.
Case study; level of evidence, 4.
Main Outcome Measures:
Objective values were obtained by standard goniometric measurements, handheld dynamometer, dynamic sports testing, and clinical testing for intra-articular pathology.
This case report illustrates improvements in hip mobility, muscle-force output, elimination of clinical signs of intra-articular involvement, and ability to perform high-level sport-specific training at 9 wk postsurgery. At 16 wk postsurgery, the patient was able to return to full preparation for sport for the following season.
After the 4-phase rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated improvement in all areas of high-level function after an arthroscopic intra-articular repair of the hip. The preoperative management to return to sport is outlined, with clinical outcomes and criteria for return to competition.
Joe D. Willis
Sport-specific motive scales were developed for power, achievement, and fear-of failure. Pilot testing resulted in 80 Likert-type items for the three scales, which were administered to 764 males and 253 females. Subjects were junior high to college level athletes representing 17 sports and 22 schools or colleges. Item analysis further reduced the number of items to 40. Alpha reliabilities for the three scales ranged from .76 to .78, whereas test-retest reliabilities after 8 weeks were .69 to .75. Evidence of content, criterion-related, and construct validity was presented. All scales were found to be relatively free of social desirability bias. It was concluded that the use of the scales was justified when confined to the study of groups and for research purposes only.
Tim Rees and Lew Hardy
Lack of consensus regarding the nature and conceptual definition of the social support construct has led to a plethora of different forms of measurement of this psychosocial variable, many with psychometric limitations. Beyond the psychometric limitations of some measures, in sport there is also a need for measures to be relevant to the specific experiences of sports performers. In order to gain a greater understanding of the social support experiences of sports people, 10 high-level sports performers were interviewed regarding their experiences of social support. Principles of the grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) approach were adopted for analysis of their responses and insights. Four dimensions of support were generated, within each of which were comments relating to sport-specific support and comments relating to support not directly concerning the sport itself. The dimensions were labeled emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible. Example quotes are given to highlight each dimension of support, and implications for intervention are derived.
François Lemyre, Pierre Trudel and Natalie Durand-Bush
Researchers have investigated how elite or expert coaches learn to coach, but very few have investigated this process with coaches at the recreational or developmental-performance levels. Thirty-six youth-sport coaches (ice hockey, soccer, and baseball) were each interviewed twice to document their learning situations. Results indicate that (a) formal programs are only one of the many opportunities to learn how to coach; (b) coaches’ prior experiences as players, assistant coaches, or instructors provide them with some sport-specific knowledge and allow them to initiate socialization within the subculture of their respective sports; (c) coaches rarely interact with rival coaches; and (d) there are differences in coaches’ learning situations between sports. Reflections on who could help coaches get the most out of their learning situations are provided.
Jennifer L. Kentel and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh
Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying.Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women’s experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews.Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.