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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

increase in hepcidin levels occurring 5 hr after starvation commenced, and it was sustained for the duration of the starvation period (48 hr). This novel method of HAMP induction and subsequent burst at 5-hr poststarvation is largely the result of CREBH binding to the HAMP gene. The maintenance of

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

protocols. 2 Also, a large capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work has been reported. For example, the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds have been measured at ∼70% and ∼90% of VO 2 max, respectively, 1 – 3 and a gross efficiency of ∼24% has been

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Nick B. Murray, Tim J. Gabbett and Andrew D. Townshend

calculated based on the total number of injuries sustained, relative to the total number of players exposed to each given workload category. Injury likelihoods and risks (RR) for both the current week and subsequent week were calculated. 25 Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 (SPSS Inc

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

calibrated automatic analyzer (YSI 2300; Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) in duplicate and averaged for subsequent analysis. LT and LTP were visually obtained by plotting blood lactate against running velocity and were approved by 2 independent reviewers. LT was accepted as the first sustained

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Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai and Fabrizio Caputo

Oliveira, Bernard’Augusto Ferrazza Dias, Eduardo Gomes de Azevedo Filho, and Rudemar Brizola de Quadros. References 1. Muthalib M , Millet GY , Quaresima V , Nosaka K . Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric

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Eva Piatrikova, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez and Sean Williams

The critical speed (CS) model describes the capacity of an individual to sustain particular work rates as a function of time, via the demarcation of 2 physiological parameters; CS and the curvature constant ( D ′). 1 – 5 The CS represents the highest speed that can be sustained for an extended

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa

implication for long-term training adaptations. 33 Interestingly, our findings indicate that for the loaded conditions, RCOD performance were faster at 15-second postwarm-up intervention, and this PAP effect was sustained up to 8-minute postwarm-up intervention. For the unloaded condition, such RCODs

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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Daria Neyroud, Jimmy Samararatne, Bengt Kayser and Nicolas Place

, if during voluntary dynamic contractions some motoneurons might discharge at a very high rate during the first 2 to 3 pulses, 15 , 16 the firing frequency rapidly declines and the concomitant application of NMES might allow motoneurons to sustain higher discharge rates. 17 As such, the application

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

influenced by several limitations such as aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, cyclist mass, hill gradient, gear ratio, or total distance. 10 , 13 Power output and cadence during uphill segments of the Tour de France have been described. 14 During ascents, cyclists have to sustain a mean power output of