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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

increase in hepcidin levels occurring 5 hr after starvation commenced, and it was sustained for the duration of the starvation period (48 hr). This novel method of HAMP induction and subsequent burst at 5-hr poststarvation is largely the result of CREBH binding to the HAMP gene. The maintenance of

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann and Karim Chamari

, early detection, early treatment of health problems), and tertiary prevention (ie, reducing complications associated with already sustained health problems). 17 A translating research into injury prevention practice framework model is looking at primary prevention. 17 In some cases, injury has occurred because

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

ischemic conditions, 2 it remains unknown whether previously observed local IPC-induced metabolic adaptations 9 , 30 may have contributed to these findings. Nevertheless, the current data are suggestive that traditional IPC, applied locally, enhances the ability to sustain the same workload for a

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

Successful middle-distance (MD) running in distances from 800 m to 5000 m requires both rapid and economical movements. Athletes must sustain high running velocities at and above maximal aerobic speeds, 1 with sprint performance in the final lap of 1500-m races often determining medalists on the

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Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai and Fabrizio Caputo

Oliveira, Bernard’Augusto Ferrazza Dias, Eduardo Gomes de Azevedo Filho, and Rudemar Brizola de Quadros. References 1. Muthalib M , Millet GY , Quaresima V , Nosaka K . Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

influenced by several limitations such as aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, cyclist mass, hill gradient, gear ratio, or total distance. 10 , 13 Power output and cadence during uphill segments of the Tour de France have been described. 14 During ascents, cyclists have to sustain a mean power output of

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Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M. Murias and Guillaume Y. Millet

(Figures  4A and 4B ), indicating a close pattern of physiological demand. A relatively large plateau in V ˙ O 2 versus workload relationship was observed for most of the tests. Foster et al 22 pointed out to the remarkable ability of the skaters to rapidly attain and sustain maximal level of V ˙ O 2

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Daria Neyroud, Jimmy Samararatne, Bengt Kayser and Nicolas Place

, if during voluntary dynamic contractions some motoneurons might discharge at a very high rate during the first 2 to 3 pulses, 15 , 16 the firing frequency rapidly declines and the concomitant application of NMES might allow motoneurons to sustain higher discharge rates. 17 As such, the application

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

protocols. 2 Also, a large capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work has been reported. For example, the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds have been measured at ∼70% and ∼90% of VO 2 max, respectively, 1 – 3 and a gross efficiency of ∼24% has been

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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

can be sustained decreases as a hyperbolic function of increasing power, speed, tension, or force (eg, power illustrated in Figure  1 ). 6 Consequently, performance and the point of exhaustion are highly predictable. When work data are plotted against time, it may be observed that power output falls