This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.
Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson
John Hennings, Tristan Wallhead and Mark Byra
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) strategies, such as the reciprocal style of teaching, have been shown to be effective in developing motor skills. Despite this research, little is currently understood of how PAL strategies influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to use a didactic methodology (Amade-Escot, 2005) to examine the content taught and learned by two pairs of undergraduate students participating in reciprocal style (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002) episodes of indoor climbing. The didactic protocol included collecting data regarding student intentions, actions and interpretations of content, and the identification of problematic episodes in the teaching-learning process or Critical Didactic Incidents. The participants’ improved their knowledge and performance of lower complexity climbing skills. Participants’ failure to construct more sophisticated climbing content was as a result of deficiencies in the peer observer’s in-task error diagnosis feedback and teaching style imposed constraints on teacher intervention.
Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma
This study examined cooperating teacher (CT) experiences in and perceptions of the student teaching practicum, and the impact of the practicum on their beliefs about teaching in physical education and on their perceptions of the practicum. Constructivism, particularly social constructivism, provided the theoretical framework. The participants were 7 elementary physical education teachers serving as CTs. The primary data sources were standardized, open-ended interviews with the CTs and journals kept by the CTs throughout the practicum. The results showed that these CTs saw the practicum as a positive experience that caused them to increase reflection on and revitalize their teaching. Few changes were noted from pre- to postpracticum in the CTs’ beliefs about teaching physical education or their perceptions of the practicum. CTs with positive practicum perspectives have in common certain contextual factors and social interactions that differ from CTs with negative perspectives; these are discussed.
The purpose of the study was to understand how contextual factors influenced three teachers’ willingness to embrace and implement a curriculum based on the teaching of thinking skills within middle school physical education. The teachers were selected because teaching thinking skills was an important part of the central mission of their schools, and they were involved in planning and teaching thinking skills in physical education. Observations of lessons, formal interviews with the teachers and administrators, and curriculum documents provided the data base for analysis using constant comparison and analytic induction. In addition, the value orientations of all teachers within each department were obtained using the Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Chen, 1993). Results indicated that school and community support, teacher value orientation and collegiality, and teacher’s perception of the relationship of physical education to broader curricular innovation influenced the teachers’ acceptance of teaching thinking skills as a curricular focus.
Guy Faulkner and Colin Reeves
The importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to exercise behavior has been acknowledged. However, the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to specific attitudes has been overlooked. This study used a self-report questionnaire to assess the physical self-perceptions and attitudes toward teaching physical education of a sample of final-year, female, primary school student teachers (N = 116). The most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education were recorded by students reporting more positive physical self-perceptions. Comparisons between students with low and high attitudes toward teaching physical education using MANOVA and discriminant function analysis confirmed these findings. Specifically, students with the most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education reported stronger self-perceptions of sports competence, and perceived competence in the sport subdomain was deemed more important than the other subdomains. It is speculated that these findings reflect a process of cognitive consonance mediating physical self-perceptions and attitudes.
Deidre Connelly and Robert J. Rotella
This paper describes issues and strategies related to teaching social assertiveness skills to athletes. Social assertiveness is examined as a key ingredient for effective communication and athlete satisfaction. Communication difficulties and issues frequently encountered in working with athletes, relevant to assertiveness skills, are discussed along with examination of team member issues that athletes must confront in order to function effectively in assertiveness situations. Specific strategies for teaching assertiveness skills to groups and individuals are presented and include applications to various sport settings.
Yannis Theodorakis, Konstantinos Bagiatis and Marios Goudas
The aim of this study was to examine attitudes and intentions of physical education students toward teaching individuals with disabilities. The planned behavior model and two exogenous variables (attitude strength and role identity) were used to examine antecedents of students’ intentions for teaching individuals with disabilities in the future. The sample consisted of 99 university students taking adapted physical education courses. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that the role identity and attitude strength variables mediated the effects of subjective norms and attitudes toward behavior on intention. Also, perceived behavioral control was not a direct determinant of intention but affected the attitude strength variable. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding attitude-behavior relationships in physical education for special populations. It seems that professionals’ intentions to work with individuals with disabilities are formed as part of their role identity in the society and are affected by professionals’ attitude confidence toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Emily M. Jones, Jun-hyung Baek and James D. Wyant
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing preservice teachers’ (PST) experiences integrating technology within a guided action-based research project in the context of student teaching.
Participants were enrolled at a rural, mid-Atlantic university (N = 80, 53 male; 27 female). Researchers retrieved archived data from five semesters of physical education (PE) student teaching cohorts. Data sources included: Technology Action Research Project poster presentations (n = 75) and reflective journal entries (n = 234). All identifiable information was removed, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively.
Three themes and subthemes emerged Student Clientele, Self as Teacher, and Others as Systems of Support as contributing agents in PSTs’ experiences integrating technology.
Results of this study support technology-rich field-based experiences for PSTs that are guided by an action research framework. Findings enhance our understanding of factors that facilitate and hinder early career PE teachers use of technology in teaching and learning settings.
Paul C. Paese and Steve Zinkgraf
This study was conducted to assess the level of stress and efficacy at the entry and exit of a traditional student-teaching experience in physical education. Significant positive changes during student teaching were illustrated on these stress variables: role ambiguity, role overload, role preparedness, and illness symptoms. No significant changes were made in personal teacher efficacy (PTE) and general teacher efficacy (GTE) during the course of the study. No significant relationships were found between the other dependent variables (gender, teaching level, prior field experiences) and stress/efficacy scores. Correlations were also reported between the majority of stress variables with personal teacher efficacy. Implications of the findings for student teachers and induction teachers are discussed.