The concept of social effectiveness tends to be explained in terms of individual’s ability to identify, comprehend, and attain effective social networks that can produce advantageous career and life outcomes. Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that a strong connection between social effectiveness and leadership effectiveness exists. However, while most undergraduate and graduate sport management skills textbooks include a chapter or several chapters about leadership, few devote more than several pages to social effectiveness constructs. Contemporary sport pedagogy articles about teaching leadership also do not explore the important connection between social effectiveness and leadership adequately. Therefore, given the salience of social effectiveness to leadership as well as the need for more complete investigations of the manner by which leaders engage in effective leadership behaviors, the present review critically examines social effectiveness as a means to successful sport leadership and proposes specific pedagogical practices for sport management educators.
Marshall Magnusen and Pamela L. Perrewé
A theoretical framework for analyzing and discussing subject content in physical education that takes both learning content and teaching content into consideration is presented. For this purpose, John Dewey’s transactional approach on meaning making (Altman & Rogoff, 1987; Bentley & Dewey, 1991) as well as a discourse theoretical position (Foucault, 1988, 2002; Wetherell, Taylor & Yates, 2001) are used. On the one hand, this makes it possible to analyze the institutional content and conditions of meaning making in physical education, and on the other to discuss the content offered as one aspect of pupils’ meaning making. An empirical example of the outlined approach is also given from a previous study of local curriculum documents in Swedish physical education (Quennerstedt, 2006a, 2006b). The example illustrates how we can understand aspects of meaning making in physical education and also the research claims made possible using a transactional approach.
Collin Webster, Eva Monsma and Heather Erwin
Recommendations for increasing children’s daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers’ (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants who completed SPAP-related college coursework and had PA-related teaching/coaching experiences reported higher SPAP competence. Significant relationships were found among BMI, personal PA competence and SPAP competence in the contexts of PE and extracurricular settings. Personal PA competence and SPAP competence at recess and in the classroom predicted 19% of the variance in SPAP attitudes. Experiences in PA settings and preservice training may have important implications for the overall success of efforts to enhance school PA promotion.
Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney and Virginia Gray
Service-learning is a community-based method of teaching in which students fulfill academic course content while simultaneously contributing to the welfare of the community ( Bringle & Hatcher, 1999 ). Service-learning provides real-world experiences for students to apply, reflect, and understand
Lijuan Wang, Amy Sau-ching Ha and Xu Wen
This research primarily aimed to examine the compatibility of teaching perspectives of teachers with the Physical Education (PE) curriculum in China. The Teaching Perspective Inventory (Pratt, 1998) was used to collect data from 272 PE teachers. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs, and correlational procedures were used for quantitative data analysis. Results indicated that PE teachers had a common pattern of a single dominant teaching perspective. Student personal growth was addressed but less attention was given to changes in society and learners’ thinking. The findings suggest that the teachers’ perspectives may be incompatible with the focus of the current Chinese PE curriculum. Furthermore, the significant correlations among the teaching perspectives reflect the interdependence of these viewpoints. As a result, teachers’ perspectives on teaching need to be considered thoroughly when PE reformers attempt to modify the curricula. Finally, gender, years of teaching experience, and teaching level were the factors associated with the variation in teaching perspectives. However, academic degree and sampling methods (convenient sampling and random sampling) were not.
Timo Jaakkola and Anthony Watt
The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded to an electronic questionnaire accessed through a link delivered to them by e-mail. The instrument included background information items (gender, teaching experience, education, school level, mean class size) and questions pertaining to ‘teacher use’ and ‘perceived benefits to students’ of the various teaching styles. The results of the study revealed that teachers used the command and practice styles of teaching most frequently and the self-check and convergent discovery styles least frequently. The trend was to use more teacher-centered than student-centered styles. The teachers perceived the practice and divergent production styles as most and the reciprocal and convergent discovery styles as least beneficial for their students.
Barrie Gordon and Stephanie Doyle
The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants’ lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however, uncertain. The research findings are mixed both in the commitment to transfer of learning and the level of success that has been achieved. The interest in transfer of learning is not restricted to the area of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model or physical education and sport in general, but is an area of strong academic interest with a long history of research and debate. This article draws on the knowledge and understandings of transfer of learning from this wider literature to explore ways in which to help facilitate transfer of learning for practitioners of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model.
Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma
This study examined cooperating teacher (CT) experiences in and perceptions of the student teaching practicum, and the impact of the practicum on their beliefs about teaching in physical education and on their perceptions of the practicum. Constructivism, particularly social constructivism, provided the theoretical framework. The participants were 7 elementary physical education teachers serving as CTs. The primary data sources were standardized, open-ended interviews with the CTs and journals kept by the CTs throughout the practicum. The results showed that these CTs saw the practicum as a positive experience that caused them to increase reflection on and revitalize their teaching. Few changes were noted from pre- to postpracticum in the CTs’ beliefs about teaching physical education or their perceptions of the practicum. CTs with positive practicum perspectives have in common certain contextual factors and social interactions that differ from CTs with negative perspectives; these are discussed.
John Hennings, Tristan Wallhead and Mark Byra
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) strategies, such as the reciprocal style of teaching, have been shown to be effective in developing motor skills. Despite this research, little is currently understood of how PAL strategies influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to use a didactic methodology (Amade-Escot, 2005) to examine the content taught and learned by two pairs of undergraduate students participating in reciprocal style (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002) episodes of indoor climbing. The didactic protocol included collecting data regarding student intentions, actions and interpretations of content, and the identification of problematic episodes in the teaching-learning process or Critical Didactic Incidents. The participants’ improved their knowledge and performance of lower complexity climbing skills. Participants’ failure to construct more sophisticated climbing content was as a result of deficiencies in the peer observer’s in-task error diagnosis feedback and teaching style imposed constraints on teacher intervention.
Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson
This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.