The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants’ lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however, uncertain. The research findings are mixed both in the commitment to transfer of learning and the level of success that has been achieved. The interest in transfer of learning is not restricted to the area of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model or physical education and sport in general, but is an area of strong academic interest with a long history of research and debate. This article draws on the knowledge and understandings of transfer of learning from this wider literature to explore ways in which to help facilitate transfer of learning for practitioners of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model.
Barrie Gordon and Stephanie Doyle
A theoretical framework for analyzing and discussing subject content in physical education that takes both learning content and teaching content into consideration is presented. For this purpose, John Dewey’s transactional approach on meaning making (Altman & Rogoff, 1987; Bentley & Dewey, 1991) as well as a discourse theoretical position (Foucault, 1988, 2002; Wetherell, Taylor & Yates, 2001) are used. On the one hand, this makes it possible to analyze the institutional content and conditions of meaning making in physical education, and on the other to discuss the content offered as one aspect of pupils’ meaning making. An empirical example of the outlined approach is also given from a previous study of local curriculum documents in Swedish physical education (Quennerstedt, 2006a, 2006b). The example illustrates how we can understand aspects of meaning making in physical education and also the research claims made possible using a transactional approach.
Collin Webster, Eva Monsma and Heather Erwin
Recommendations for increasing children’s daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers’ (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants who completed SPAP-related college coursework and had PA-related teaching/coaching experiences reported higher SPAP competence. Significant relationships were found among BMI, personal PA competence and SPAP competence in the contexts of PE and extracurricular settings. Personal PA competence and SPAP competence at recess and in the classroom predicted 19% of the variance in SPAP attitudes. Experiences in PA settings and preservice training may have important implications for the overall success of efforts to enhance school PA promotion.
Marshall Magnusen and Pamela L. Perrewé
The concept of social effectiveness tends to be explained in terms of individual’s ability to identify, comprehend, and attain effective social networks that can produce advantageous career and life outcomes. Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that a strong connection between social effectiveness and leadership effectiveness exists. However, while most undergraduate and graduate sport management skills textbooks include a chapter or several chapters about leadership, few devote more than several pages to social effectiveness constructs. Contemporary sport pedagogy articles about teaching leadership also do not explore the important connection between social effectiveness and leadership adequately. Therefore, given the salience of social effectiveness to leadership as well as the need for more complete investigations of the manner by which leaders engage in effective leadership behaviors, the present review critically examines social effectiveness as a means to successful sport leadership and proposes specific pedagogical practices for sport management educators.
John Hennings, Tristan Wallhead and Mark Byra
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) strategies, such as the reciprocal style of teaching, have been shown to be effective in developing motor skills. Despite this research, little is currently understood of how PAL strategies influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to use a didactic methodology (Amade-Escot, 2005) to examine the content taught and learned by two pairs of undergraduate students participating in reciprocal style (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002) episodes of indoor climbing. The didactic protocol included collecting data regarding student intentions, actions and interpretations of content, and the identification of problematic episodes in the teaching-learning process or Critical Didactic Incidents. The participants’ improved their knowledge and performance of lower complexity climbing skills. Participants’ failure to construct more sophisticated climbing content was as a result of deficiencies in the peer observer’s in-task error diagnosis feedback and teaching style imposed constraints on teacher intervention.
Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson
This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.
Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma
This study examined cooperating teacher (CT) experiences in and perceptions of the student teaching practicum, and the impact of the practicum on their beliefs about teaching in physical education and on their perceptions of the practicum. Constructivism, particularly social constructivism, provided the theoretical framework. The participants were 7 elementary physical education teachers serving as CTs. The primary data sources were standardized, open-ended interviews with the CTs and journals kept by the CTs throughout the practicum. The results showed that these CTs saw the practicum as a positive experience that caused them to increase reflection on and revitalize their teaching. Few changes were noted from pre- to postpracticum in the CTs’ beliefs about teaching physical education or their perceptions of the practicum. CTs with positive practicum perspectives have in common certain contextual factors and social interactions that differ from CTs with negative perspectives; these are discussed.
The purpose of the study was to understand how contextual factors influenced three teachers’ willingness to embrace and implement a curriculum based on the teaching of thinking skills within middle school physical education. The teachers were selected because teaching thinking skills was an important part of the central mission of their schools, and they were involved in planning and teaching thinking skills in physical education. Observations of lessons, formal interviews with the teachers and administrators, and curriculum documents provided the data base for analysis using constant comparison and analytic induction. In addition, the value orientations of all teachers within each department were obtained using the Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Chen, 1993). Results indicated that school and community support, teacher value orientation and collegiality, and teacher’s perception of the relationship of physical education to broader curricular innovation influenced the teachers’ acceptance of teaching thinking skills as a curricular focus.
Guy Faulkner and Colin Reeves
The importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to exercise behavior has been acknowledged. However, the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to specific attitudes has been overlooked. This study used a self-report questionnaire to assess the physical self-perceptions and attitudes toward teaching physical education of a sample of final-year, female, primary school student teachers (N = 116). The most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education were recorded by students reporting more positive physical self-perceptions. Comparisons between students with low and high attitudes toward teaching physical education using MANOVA and discriminant function analysis confirmed these findings. Specifically, students with the most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education reported stronger self-perceptions of sports competence, and perceived competence in the sport subdomain was deemed more important than the other subdomains. It is speculated that these findings reflect a process of cognitive consonance mediating physical self-perceptions and attitudes.
Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney and Virginia Gray
Service-learning is a community-based method of teaching in which students fulfill academic course content while simultaneously contributing to the welfare of the community ( Bringle & Hatcher, 1999 ). Service-learning provides real-world experiences for students to apply, reflect, and understand