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Diane K. Ehlers and Jennifer L. Huberty

Background:

The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred.

Results:

Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application.

Conclusions:

Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middleaged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

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Mihalis Atsalakis and Mike Sleap

Community physical activity programs are a means by which children may be provided with appropriate physical activity, although it is not yet known how children register in these programs. In this research, registration of young children in community physical activity programs was assumed to be a product of decisions made by their parents. The purpose of the research was to explore the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting registration of children in a community physical activity program from decisions made by their parents. A simple random sample of 400 first-grade elementary school children resident in Heraklion, Crete, was selected. Their parents completed a questionnaire corresponding to the framework of the theory of planned behavior. It was concluded that the theory of planned behavior is valid in predicting the defined behavior.

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William J. Morgan

I take up Ingham’s and Beamish’s three main criticisms of my previous critique of hegemony theory—that it is “distorted” because it ignores that hegemony both sets limits and opens up possibilities, that it overlooks Williams’ point that hegemony “is never total or exclusive”, and that it falsely claims that Williams opted for an all-inclusive, material base to replace the classical Marxist base superstructure paradigm—and argue that they all miss the mark. I thus conclude by reaffirming my major thesis that hegemony sport theory is best regarded as a theory of social containment rather than social transformation because it has no intelligible way of explaining major shifts of dominance, that is, of accounting for the transference of dominance from one group to another.

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Heather J. Peters, Jeff Greenberg, Jean M. Williams and Nicole R. Schneider

Motivation plays a key role in successful athletic performance, and terror management theory has emerged as a broad theory of human motivation (e.g., Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 1991) that may have implications for sport and exercise performance. Based on the theory, we tested the hypothesis that a reminder of mortality can motivate improved performance in a task requiring physical strength in individuals invested in strength. Participants demonstrated their strength on a hand dynamometer, then wrote about their own mortality or dental pain, and again squeezed the hand dynamometer. Results indicated that reminders of mortality increased strength performance for individuals invested in strength training (24 F, 31 M), and had no impact on those not invested in strength training (30 F, 28 M), p = .015. Implications for athletes are briefly discussed.

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Marian E. Kneer

The theory/practice gap in physical education instructional practices has been more or less assumed. Recent research employing data-based analysis has provided some insight about instructional procedures being used. There is little evidence about the existence, size, and reasons contributing to the perceived gap. Instructors N = (128) from 20 randomly selected Illinois secondary schools were interviewed via questionnaire to obtain evidence relative to the perceived gap in the use of instructional “theory.” Results indicate that an overall gap exists in the regular use of planning (40%), teaching approaches (64%), practice (31%), evaluation (40%), and teaching/learning environment procedures (18%). The reason most often given for not using recommended planning, practice, and evaluation procedures was an expressed belief that “it was not necessary” (42%). Recommended instructional practices were used significantly more often by teachers from large schools and by teachers with more inservice education. The amount of instructor teaching experience is significantly related to the use of selected instructional theory.

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Jay Kimiecik

The purpose of the present study was to compare the utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in predicting the exercise intentions and behavior of corporate employees. Corporate employees (/7=332) who completed two questionnaires served as subjects. The first questionnaire assessed intentions, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived control with respect to participating in regular, vigorous physical activity. Participants also completed a follow-up questionnaire 4 weeks later that assessed self-reported frequency of vigorous physical activity during those 4 weeks. Hierarchical-regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioral control (the critical variable in the theory of planned behavior) accounted for a significant portion of the variance in intentions and self-reported exercise behavior, above that accounted for by reasoned action. These results lend support to Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, which suggests that individuals' perceptions of control are most important when attempting behaviors that are not completely under volitional control.

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Vikki Krane

This paper describes an epistemology integrating feminist standpoint, queer theory, and feminist cultural studies. Feminist standpoint theory assumes that people develop different perspectives based on their position in society, and women have a distinct standpoint because of the power differential between females and males in our society. Queer theory places sexuality as a central focus, acknowledges the common history of devaluation of non heterosexual individuals, and challenges the current power structure marginalizing nonheterosexuals. Feminist cultural studies examines the role of gender within our cultural interactions and the reproduction of gender inequality in society. I then provide examples illustrating how these perspectives come together and guide my research investigating the experiences of lesbians in sport and women’s bodily experiences.

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Judy A. Blucker and Eve Hershberger

Causal attribution theory research has recently been applied to the female athlete. Early causal attribution research was influenced by Horner's (1968) original hypothesis about a fear of success personality trait that women generally possess. The purpose of this paper is to critique such research noting variables and issues which may have an impact on research and its interpretation when applied to the female athlete.

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Anna Woch and Réjean Plamondon

This article reviews the current status of the movement primitives problem, especially the question of their description and identification, and points out some challenges that are stillwhich remain unsolved by the approaches that are frequently adopted to study human movements. We use the framework of the kinematic theory proposed by Plamondon (1995 and 1998) as an example of a hybrid model thatthat allows a precise and flexible quantitative description of human movements. It is shown that the theory can be used to encompass the various types of rapid movement encountered in the field. Namely, tThe principal aim of this article is to highlight the fact that the notion of movement primitive movements should not necessarily be confined to movements with a single velocity peak, as it is still often assumed in many models. The model allows, for example, a simple description of a movement primitivethat, which might contain up to two direction reversals.

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Anne R. Schutte and John P. Spencer

The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60° of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60°. Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent “preshaping” of a single planning system.