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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

potential fans should be identified and incorporated in the proposed model. Specifically, based on the basic tenets of the social identity approach, we propose potential moderating roles of need for uniqueness and self-uncertainty. Need for uniqueness Brewer ( 1991 ) argued that social identity arises from

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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon

outcomes (95% confidence around the mean difference), there was uncertainty as to whether vestibular rehabilitation would result, on average, in beneficial changes for every athlete who suffered a concussion. In other words, there appeared to be a trend in improvement at the group level, but this was

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Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton

, decisions arise when there are multiple realistic alternatives, with the risk of negative outcomes from taking the wrong position. 3 A prerequisite for effective decision making is reducing uncertainty surrounding the best course of action. Business intelligence units turn data into knowledge and have

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John Charles Bradbury

relationship between performance and attendance, but posited that the relationship ought to be diminishing because game outcomes become less suspenseful as a team becomes more dominant than its competitors, thereby reducing fan interest. This relationship—known as the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis (UOH

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Kristin M. Mills, Scott Sadler, Karen Peterson and Lorrin Pang

sustainable), then we can later determine who shares in the costs and the savings. No discount was applied to the outcome values because the time period was only a year and the reasons for discounting returns are more controversial. 7 Allowance for Uncertainty Uncertainties of the economic model can arise

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Samuel M. Clevenger

gentlemen utilized to preserve their positions of authority and power. For this reason, Cohen characterizes “sports” during the colonial and antebellum periods as contextual practices formed from the “dramatic tension of uncertainty and risk” (p. 7). Activities with a particular physical hue, such as

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Ophir Sefiha

the “Black Atlantic” to explain the complicated relationship African’s have to their “stars.” As discussed in the previous chapter, migrants often harbor an ambivalence with their birth country, emerging from an uncertainty regarding Western media portrayals of their home country. This uncertainty

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Aaron J. Coutts

is on the readers to understand the uncertainty in any research findings, but this is much easier to achieve if we as authors provide clear and relevant practical advice.

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Brian E. Pruegger

-responsibility, initiative, and the need to be flexible. However the authors note that subjective investment can also lead to personal fulfillment, pleasure, and hedonism. That norm of pleasure can also prime hard work, commitment, and the feeling of family in an organization. The uncertainty of occupational stability is

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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

evaluation, body composition analysis, biochemical testing, nutrition-focused clinical examination, and patient health and performance history. Assessment should take account of maturation status, sex, ethnicity and culture. The limitations and uncertainties in all of the methods employed must be recognised