This paper describes the validation of The Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (DTLI) within a participation youth sports context. Three hundred and twenty-two athletes aged between 11 and 18 years completed the DTLI. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, the DTLI yielded an underlying factor structure that fell short of cut-off criteria for adjudging model fit. Subsequent theory-driven changes were made to the DTLI by removing the ‘high performance expectations’ subscale. Further data-driven changes were also made on the basis of high item-factor cross-loadings. The revised version of the DTLI was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and proved to be a good fit for the obtained data. Consequently, a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory for Youth Sport has been suggested for use within the participation youth sport context that contains 22 items, and retains six subscales.
Stewart A. Vella, Lindsay G. Oades and Trevor P. Crowe
Minna T. Blomqvist, Pekka Luhtanen, Lauri Laakso and Esko Keskinen
The purpose of this study is to report on the development and validation of a game-understanding test procedure in badminton. A basic video-based test was constructed, and primary school children (ages 9–10 and 11–12 years, N = 120) served as participants. An advanced test was designed to detect differences between national level junior badminton players (11–14 years, n = 19) and primary and secondary school children (11–14 years, n = 45). The video-based tests consisted of 15 to 19 different sequences that were simulations of actual offensive and defensive game situations. In every sequence, players were to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Validity and reliability of the tests were examined through these groups, and the findings suggest that the test procedure developed provides a valid and reliable method for assessing game understanding in badminton.
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.
Xiaofen Deng Keating and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS) produces reliable and valid scores. There were 4 stages and 4 sets of participants in the development of the PETAFTS. First, the domains of attitude were defined and cognitive and affective components were developed, organized, and validated. In the second stage, 134 full-time physical education teachers participated in a pilot study and PETAFTS was revised based on the information obtained. In the third stage, 28 teacher educators served on an expert panel and organized the items into domain areas. In the final stage, 322 physical education teachers from 10 states tested the revised PETAFTS. Based on the results, the PETAFTS was shortened by deleting and combining some of the items in subdomains; this resulted in a 16-item final version that, according to the indices, generates reliable and valid scores.
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Kevin Daniels
The series of related studies reported here describe the development and validation of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP). In Study 1, an expert and usability panel examined the content validity and applicability of an initial item pool. The resultant 96 items were analyzed with exploratory factor analyses in Study 2, with the factorial structure comprising 5 factors (viz., Goals and Development, Logistics and Operations, Team and Culture, Coaching, Selection) and 33 items. Using confirmatory factor analyses, Studies 3 and 4 found support for the 5-factor structure. Study 4 also provided evidence for the OSI-SP’s concurrent validity and invariance across different groups. The OSI-SP is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers.
Edward F. Etzel Jr.
Information is presented on the development and validation of a unique multidimensional, sport-specific model of attention among 71 world-class and/or potential world-class international rifle shooters. It was postulated that attention possesses five relatively independent subcomponent factors: capacity, duration, flexibility, intensivity, and selectivity. A 25-item, five-subscale questionnaire, the Riflery Attention Questionnaire (RAQ), was systematically developed utilizing Goldberg's intuitive-rational strategy as well as Jackson's general test-item development approach. Factor analysis and item analyses performed on each subscale generally supported the factor integrity of the model. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was also conducted to determine the extent to which subjects' RAQ responses predicted their shooting performance. A low positive relationship between the two was noted.
Deborah Kendzierski and Mara S. Morganstein
Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.
Paul Rowe, Hans van der Mars, Joel Schuldheisz and Susan Fox
This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and Energy Expenditure, that is, oxygen uptake, served as concurrent validity criteria. Results indicate that SOFIT discriminates accurately among high-school students’ sedentary behaviors (i.e., lying down, sitting, standing) and moderate to vigorous physical activity behavior and is recommended for use in research and assessment of physical activity levels in physical education classes for this age group. Implications for use of SOFIT by both researchers and teachers in physical education are described, as well.
Jason S. Scibek and Christopher R. Carcia
The purpose of our study was to establish criterion-related validity and repeatability of a shoulder biomechanics testing protocol involving an electromagnetic tracking system (Flock of Birds [FoB]). Eleven subjects completed humeral elevation tasks in the sagittal, scapular, and frontal planes on two occasions. Shoulder kinematics were assessed with a digital inclinometer and the FoB. Intrasession and intersession repeatability for orthopedic angles, and humeral and scapular kinematics ranged from moderate to excellent. Correlation analyses revealed strong relationships between inclinometer and FoB measures of humeral motion, yet considerable mean differences were noted between the measurement devices. Our results validate use of the FoB for measuring humeral kinematics and establish our testing protocol as reliable. We must continue to consider factors that can impact system accuracy and the effects they may have on kinematic descriptions and how data are reported.
R. Randall Clark, Jacqueline M. Kuta and Robert A. Oppliger
Wisconsin has mandated minimal weight (MW) testing for high school wrestlers. In preparation, six MW predictions were cross-validated on 69 Wisconsin wrestlers (age 15.7±1.1 yrs, height 169.2±6.3 cm, weight 63.3±8.1 kg, percent fat 11.2±4.7%, and MW 58.9±6.9 kg). Minimal weight, defined as fat-free body/.93, determined by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and residual volume using 02 dilution, served as the criterion. Analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, statistically significant but clinically small (<1.3 kg) differences were shown in four of six predictions. Lohman 1, Lohman2, and Katch equations appear more appropriate with smaller mean differences, smaller total error, and higher correlations.