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Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen and Stephen Seiler

Purpose:

The purpose of this investigation was to compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among elite players over a 15-y period.

Methods:

194 female elite players (22± 4.1 y, 63 ± 5.6 kg), including an Olympic winning squad, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic training center from 1995 to 2010.

Results:

Moderate to large velocity differences across performance levels and positions were observed. National-team players were 2% faster than 1st-division players (P = .027, d = 0.5) and 5% faster than 2nd-division players (P < .001, d = 1.3) over 0–20 m. National-team players jumped 8–9% higher than 1st-division players (P = .001, d = 0.6) and junior elite players (P = .023, d = 0.5). Forwards were 3–4% faster than midfielders (P < .001, d = 0.8) and goalkeepers (P = .003, d = 0.9) over 0–20 m. No differences in velocity or CMJ height were observed among the age categories. Players from 2006–2010 were 2% faster (P < .05, d = 0.6) than players from 1995–1999 over 20 m, whereas no differences in 20- to 40-m velocity or CMJ performance were observed.

Conclusions:

This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, age, and player position on sprint and CMJ performance in female soccer players. While 20- to 40-m velocity and CMJ performance have remained stable over the time, there has been a moderate but positive development in 0- to 20-m velocity among elite performers.

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Thomas A. Haugen, Felix Breitschädel and Stephen Seiler

is a standard testing facility for an extensive number of athletes from different sports, including upper league and national team players. A database of 40-m sprint test results that has been collected since 1995 provides an excellent foundation for exploring fundamental aspects of sprint mechanical

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Rich D. Johnston

measurement for each variable. To assess the reliability, the same rater coded 3 games, 3 months apart. The definitions outlined for each variable were discussed with the coaching staff of the club and in-line with previous studies. 6 In addition, the zone on the field (defensive: 0–40 m, middle: 40–60 m

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

standardized warm-up was performed consisting of 5 min on a stationary cycle ergometer, followed by 5 min of supervised dynamic exercises (walking lunges, marching, heel flicks, high knees, and leg swings). Participants then performed two practice runs of the 40-m shuttle (Figure  1 ) at 60% and 80% effort

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Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Chris Bishop, Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A. Pereira and Michael McGuigan

athletes sprinted over a total distance of 40 m. Five pairs of photocells (Smartspeed, Fusion Sport, Brisbane, Australia) were positioned at distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m along the sprinting course, and an additional pair was placed at 60 m to assess sprinters and jumpers. Athletes performed 2

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Warren Young, Andrew Russell, Peter Burge, Alex Clarke, Stuart Cormack and Glenn Stewart

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between split times within sprint tests over 30 m and 40 m in elite Australian Rules footballers.

Methods:

Data were analyzed from two Australian Football League (AFL) clubs. The first club (n = 35) conducted a 40-m sprint test and recorded split times at 10 m and 20 m. The second club (n = 30) conducted a 30-m sprint test and recorded splits at 10 m and 20 m. Analyses included calculation of Pearson correlations and common variances between all the split times as well as “flying” times (20–40 m for the first club and 20 to 30 m for the second club).

Results:

There was a high correlation (r = 0.94) between 10-m time and 20-m time within each club, indicating these measures assessed very similar speed qualities. The correlations between 10-m time and times to 30 m and 40 m decreased, but still produced common variances of 79% and 66% respectively. However when the “flying” times (20–40 m and 20–30 m) were correlated to 10-m time, the common variances decreased substantially to 25% and 42% respectively, indicating uniqueness.

Conclusions:

It was concluded that 10-m time is a good refection of acceleration capabilities and either 20 to 40 m in a 40-m sprint test or 20 to 30 m in a 30-m sprint test can be used to estimate maximum speed capabilities. It was suggested that sprint tests over 30 m or 40 m can be conducted indoors to provide useful information about independent speed qualities in athletes.

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Elena Pardos-Mainer, José Antonio Casajús, Chris Bishop and Oliver Gonzalo-Skok

of the alternate leg flexed to 90° at the hip and knee was allowed. Furthermore, subjects were instructed to perform a controlled, balanced landing and to stick the landing for 2 to 3 seconds with the same assessed leg. The 40-m Speed Test Running speed was evaluated by a 40-m sprint time (standing

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Reed D. Gurchiek, Hasthika S. Rupasinghe Arachchige Don, Lasanthi C. R. Pelawa Watagoda, Ryan S. McGinnis, Herman van Werkhoven, Alan R. Needle, Jeffrey M. McBride and Alan T. Arnholt

Subjects performed a general and sprint-specific warm-up concluding with sprint starts from a 4-point stance to familiarize themselves with the sprint test protocol. Each subject performed 3 maximal-effort 40-m sprints with a MIMU (450 Hz, 28 g, accelerometer range: ±24 g, and gyroscope range: ±2000°/s

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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura and Hiroaki Hobara

by the local ethical committee and conformed to the guidelines set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1983). Before the experiment, participants performed warm-up exercises to familiarize themselves with the experimental environment. Participants were asked to perform maximal sprinting on a 40-m

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Georgia D. Tsiotra, Alan M. Nevill, Andrew M. Lane and Yiannis Koutedakis

We investigated whether children with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD+) demonstrate different physical fitness levels compared with their normal peers (DCD). Randomly recruited Greek children (n = 177) were assessed for body mass index (BMI), flexibility (SR), vertical jump (VJ), hand strength (HS), 40m dash, aerobic power, and motor proficiency. ANCOVA revealed a motor proficiency (i.e., DCD group) effect for BMI (p < .01), VJ (p < .01), and 40m speed (p < .01), with DCD+ children demonstrating lower values than DCD. Differences between DCD+ and DCD were also obtained in log-transformed HS (p < .01). These findings suggest that intervention strategies for managing DCD should also aim at physical fitness increases.