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Chris Harwood

The purpose of this article is to present practitioners and applied researchers with specific details of a developmental sport psychology program and coaching intervention at a professional football (soccer) academy in Great Britain. Based on a positive youth development agenda, initial consulting work with players and parents focused on education and monitoring of the 5Cs of football: Commitment, communication, concentration, control, and confidence. This was subsequently followed up with an educational and behavioral coaching intervention related to integrating the 5Cs in training and practice situations. The 4-month program aimed to specifically enhance a coach’s efficacy in shaping positive psychological and interpersonal skills in young players ranging in age from 9 to 14 years. Six coaches responsible for the development of 95 young players were involved in the program. The results of the intervention are presented for each individual coach and supplemented by interview data. Insights are provided into the role, value, and methodology behind applying sport psychology in youth-sport settings.

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Chris G. Harwood, Jamie B. Barker and Richard Anderson

This study examined the effectiveness of a longitudinal 5C coaching intervention (Harwood, 2008), focused on promoting behavioral responses associated with commitment, communication, concentration, control, and confidence in youth soccer players. Five players, their parents and a youth academy soccer coach participated in a single-case multiple-baseline across individuals design with multiple treatments. Following baseline, the coach received sequential education in the principles of each C subsequent to integrating relevant strategies in their coaching sessions. During the five intervention phases, players completed assessments of their behavior in training associated with each C, triangulated with observationbased assessments by the coach and the players’ parents. Results indicated psychosocial improvements with cumulative increases in positive psychosocial responses across the intervention for selected players. Changes in player behavior were also corroborated by parent and coach data in conjunction with postintervention social validation. Findings are discussed with respect to the processes engaged in the intervention, and the implications for practitioners and applied researchers.

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Leisha Strachan, Tara-Leigh McHugh and Courtney Mason

.G.H. , Holt , N.L. , Sullivan , P.J. , Bloom , G.A. ( 2011 ). Exploring the “5Cs” of positive youth development in sport . Journal of Sport Behavior , 34 , 250 – 266 . Khayyat Kholghi , M. , Bartlett , G. , Phillips , M. , Salsberg , J. , McComber , A.M. , & Macaulay , A.C. ( 2018

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Rosemary A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts and Freya Glendinning

Performance Strategies (TOPS): Instrument refinement using confirmatory factor analysis . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11 , 27 – 35 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.04.007 10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.04.007 Harwood , C. ( 2008 ). Developmental consulting in a professional football academy: The 5Cs

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan

commitment, communication, concentration, control, and confidence, also known as the “5 Cs” of football. In comparison, after interviewing 31 elite performers from team sports, individual sports, and music, MacNamara et al. ( 2010a , 2010b ) identified 10 PSCs as particularly important for enhancing

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

researchers also have found sport participation is associated with different outcomes than is participation in nonsport activity. For example, Zarrett et al. ( 2009 ) showed that sports involvement was more strongly related to the “5 Cs” (connection, confidence, competence, caring, and character) of positive

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

. In addition, I have (anecdotally) observed improvements in athletes’ 5Cs ( Lerner, Almerigi, et al., 2005 )—specifically, their competence and confidence and their connections with teammates, coaches, and other parents. While it is impossible to know how the team’s performance and personal

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Daniel J. Brown, Rachel Arnold, Martyn Standage and David Fletcher

.1080/10413200290103509 Jones , M.I. , Dunn , J.G.H. , Holt , N.L. , Sullivan , P.J. , & Bloom , G.A. ( 2011 ). Exploring the ‘5Cs’ of positive youth development in sport . Journal of Sport Behavior, 34 , 250 – 267 . Jones , M.I. , & Lavallee , D. ( 2009 ). Exploring the life skills needs of British

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. The program adopts the 5Cs approach to PYD that places emphasis on developing competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner et al., 2005). Coaches are trained to deliver an intentional curriculum, with a focus on building relationships; creating a positive, inclusive environment

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher

neighborhood violence ( Catalano et al., 2002 ; Lerner et al., 2005 ). In the PYD literature, the most influential framework is the theory of youth development, which emphasizes the development of the 5Cs ( Lerner et al., 2005 ). Specifically, social competence is one core outcome domain (along with