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Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopment disorder in childhood affecting 11% of school-aged children 1 and associated with wide-ranging impairments, 2 including academic underachievement, social problems, substance abuse, and negative health outcomes

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Lucy Barnard-Brak, Tonya Davis, Tracey Sulak and Victor Brak


The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between structured physical activity, specifically physical education, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Physical activity may be associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD and this rationale provided the impetus for the current study.


A community-based, nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) was used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association of physical activity with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Two random subsamples were drawn for the purposes of cross-validation of our model. Statistics reflecting model ft are reported.


With a standardized path coefficient value of –.23, findings from the current study indicate a significant, inverse association between physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, with the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children.


Using a community-based, nationally representative sample of children aged 5 to 7 years old from the United States, the results of the current study suggest that physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, may be considered as associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD across time.

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Chiao-Ling Hung, Yu-Kai Chang, Yuan-Shuo Chan, Chia-Hao Shih, Chung-Ju Huang and Tsung-Min Hung

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.

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Jason C. Immekus, Franklin Muntis and Daniela Terson de Paleville

, Taylor, & Rusby, 2001b ) were used to measure students’ behavior and academic skills. The scales are designed to assess nine dimensions of psychopathology and social and academic impairment in youth: Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (16-items), Anxiety (6 items), Depression (7 items), ADHD Inattention (9 items

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Jennifer Gapin and Jennifer L. Etnier

Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) consistently perform worse on executive function (EF) tasks relative to those without AD/HD. Physical activity has a small effect on cognition in children and may be particularly beneficial for children with AD/HD by impacting fundamental EF deficiencies that characterize this disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which physical activity is associated with EF in children with AD/HD. Eighteen boys (M age = 10.61, SD = 1.50) with AD/HD were recruited to complete four EF tasks. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer that provided daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity; this measure was a significant predictor of performance on the Tower of London planning task, adjusted R 2 = .28, F(1, 16) = 7.61, p < .05, and was positively associated with other EF measures. These results suggest that higher physical activity is associated with better EF performance in AD/HD children.

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Christine M. Salinas and Frank M. Webbe

This paper aims to familiarize readers with the contemporary scientific literature available on sports concussion as it relates to populations divergent from adult males who play football and hockey. Herein, we focus on important issues such as age, gender, culture, language, sport type, and premorbid conditions (such as learning disabilities [LD] and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder [ADHD]) that can influence concussion incidence, severity, and recovery.

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Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan

disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when compared with their peers. 2 ADHD is characterized by developmentally deviant levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, and is estimated to affect 5%–7% of school-aged children. 3 , 4 Although ADHD is not typically

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Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds and Göran Kenttä

hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Adult ADHD Self-Report If four or more marks appear in the dark shaded boxes, patient symptoms are highly consistent with ADHD in adults (see Kessler et al., 2005 ) Alcohol abuse Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Men: A score of 4 or more or 3 or more for women indicates

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Jennifer D. Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray and Brian E. Saelens

.6)  Completed graduate school 56 (39.4) 5/15 (33.3) 1/1 (100.0) 16/41 (39.0) Doctor diagnosed illness  Anxiety 9 (6.5) 1/14 (7.1) 0 4/37 (10.8)  Asthma 25 (17.6) 3/15 (20.0) 0 9/40 (22.5)  ADHD/ADD 17 (12.0) 3/15 (20.0) 0 6/40 (15.0)  Depression 2 (1.4) 1/14 (7.1) 0 0  High blood pressure 1 (0.7) 0 0 0  High

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may provide a more sensitive measure to examine both motor and executive (dys)function in neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD and DCD. Having a more sensitive neural biomarker may in turn provide a more objective measurement for differentiation between subtypes/severities. The Effect of