The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the teaching experiences of African American physical education teacher candidates in secondary physical education programs at urban schools. The research design was explanatory multiple-case study situated in positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999). The participants were seven African American physical education teacher candidates. The data sources were interviews, self-reflective journal logs, and e-portfolios. The data were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Boeije, 2010). The thematic findings were: (a) tacit positioning (unconscious and unintentional), (b) self–other discourse, and (c) reflective positioning. The study’s findings offer additional empirical evidence that physical education teacher education programs must do more to better prepare teacher candidates for working in urban schools with greater cultural competency and higher self-efficacy.
Takahiro Sato and Samuel Russell Hodge
Deborah Leachman Slawson, Barbara S. McClanahan, Linda H. Clemens, Kenneth D. Ward, Robert C. Klesges, Christopher M. Vukadinovich and Edwin D. Cantler
Adequate calcium intake is integral to bone health as well as for optimal athletic performance. This study was conducted to investigate: (a) food sources of calcium in a sample of collegiate athletes, (b) gender and/or ethnic differences in food sources of calcium, and (c) whether athletes that derive less of their calcium intake from dairy sources increase their calcium intake from supplements or other food sources. Participants were African-American and Euro-American NCAA Division 1-A athletes. Eighty-five men and 59 women participated. Calcium intake for the previous 7-day period was assessed with a brief calcium screen.
Men consumed significantly more calcium than women (1,354 vs. 898 mg/day), with female cross-country runners exhibiting the lowest average intake (605 mg/day). Both men and women obtained the majority of their calcium from dairy products and mixed dishes, while men consumed significantly more calcium-fortified foods. Several gender and ethnic interactions for calcium intake from food groups were found. Mean total dairy calcium intake was found to vary according to total calcium intake in men, and supplemental calcium was not used to augment low dairy intakes of calcium in any group.
While African-Americans and Euro-Americans athletes were consuming similar levels of calcium, the female athletes in the sample did not get adequate amounts.
Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris and Rose M. Chew
The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study examined the relationship between perceived physical competence and actual motor skill competence in African American preschool children at risk of school failure and/or developmental delay (N = 59). A secondary purpose was to determine gender differences and the accuracy of self-perceptions. All children completed a perceived physical competence subscale (Harter & Pike, 1984). Actual motor skill competence was measured by Ulrich’s (1985) Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD), resulting in three scores (locomotor, object-control, and TGMD-Total). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that locomotor competence (p = .99) and gender (p = .81) did not predict perceived physical competence, but object-control competence (p = .01) did significantly predict perceived physical competence. Adding gender to this regression model did not significantly predict perceived physical competence (p = .69). These findings showed that these children are not accurate at perceiving their physical competence.
Keith A. Shannon, Robynn M. Shannon, John N. Clore, Chris Gennings, Beverly J. Warren and Jeffrey A. Potteiger
To determine whether ethnicity influences postprandial lipemia after a bout of aerobic exercise.
Randomized crossover design. Healthy White (W; n = 6) and African American (AA; n = 6) women (age, W 27.0 ± 3.3 yr, AA 21.6 ± 1.4 yr; body-mass index, W 25.0 ± 0.93 kg/m2, AA 25.8 ± 0.79 kg/m2) participated in 2 treatments (control and exercise), each conducted over 2 d. On d 1, participants rested (control) or walked at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake for 90 min (exercise) and then consumed a meal. On d 2, after a 12-hr overnight fast, participants consumed an oral fat-tolerance test (OFTT) meal of 1.7 g fat, 1.65 g carbohydrate, and 0.25 g protein per kg fat-free mass. Blood was collected premeal and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hr post-OFTT and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, and insulin. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for each blood variable.
A significantly lower TAG AUC was observed for AA (0.86 ± 0.24 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1) after exercise than for W (2.25 ± .50 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1). Insulin AUC was significantly higher for AA after exercise (366.2 ± 19.9 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1) than for the control (248.1 ± 29.2 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1).
The data indicate that exercise performed ~13 hr before an OFTT significantly reduces postprandial lipemia in AA compared with W. It appears that AA women have an increased ability to dispose of TAG after exercise and a high-fat meal.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study was conducted to determine the influence of a motor skill intervention (MSI) program on the perceived competence and social acceptance of African American preschoolers who are at risk of school failure/developmental delay. Two groups of preschoolers enrolled in a compensatory prekindergarten program participated in a 12-week intervention. The motor skill intervention (MSI) group received an MSI program, while the control group (C) received the regular prekindergarten program. All children completed Harter’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance prior to and following the 12-week program. The results indicated that all children, regardless of group, reported high perceived physical and cognitive competence and high perceived maternal and peer acceptance. Additionally, the MSI group reported significantly higher perceived physical competence scores after receiving the MSI program. The MSI group also reported higher perceived physical competence than the C group on postintervention scores. No gender differences were found. It was concluded that perceived competence and social acceptance were enhanced by participation in an MSI program.
Stephen F. Burns, Keith Shannon and Jeffrey Potteiger
Scott B. Martin, Craig A. Wrisberg, Patricia A. Beitel and John Lounsbury
A 50-item questionnaire measuring athletes’ attitudes toward seeking a sport psychology consultant (ATSSPCQ) was initially developed and then administered to 48 African American and 177 Caucasian student-athletes at a NCAA Division I university. Principal components factor analyses were conducted to extract initial factors and then varimax orthogonal rotation was performed. The analyses produced three dimensions of athlete attitude that accounted for 35% of the variance: stigma tolerance, confidence in a SPC/recognition of need, and interpersonal openness/willingness to try a SPC. A MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analyses were then performed to identify the factors that maximized differences between gender and race. Significant differences in stigma tolerance were found for both gender and race. SPCs were stigmatized more by male athletes than by female athletes and more by African American athletes than by Caucasian athletes. No other significant effects were obtained.
L. Kay Morgan, Joy Griffin and Vivian H. Heyward
In sport psychology, there is a need for ethnic and gender attribution research (Allison, 1988; Duda & Allison, 1989, 1990; Gill, 1993). This study examined effects of (a) ethnicity (African American, Anglo, Hispanic, Native American); (b) gender; and (c) years of track experience on causal attributional dimensions (locus of causality, stability, controllability). The 755 track athletes (ages 13—18) in this study were chosen from 32 randomly selected high schools. Two 3-way MANOVAs were used to analyze data for success and failure. Results indicated that gender and experience had no significant effects on attributional dimensions. Athletes classified causality toward internal, controllable, and unstable ends of the Causal Dimension Scale. Success, however, was perceived to be more internal, controllable, and stable than failure. Significant ethnic differences were identified. Anglos perceived success as more internal and controllable than did either African Americans or Native Americans. Anglos perceived failure as more controllable than African Americans did. Anglos perceived failure as more internal and controllable, but less stable than Native Americans did.
Anthony P. Kontos and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble
This article examines from a theoretical perspective the most pertinent issues related to providing sport psychology consulting to athletes of color. A review of multicultural concepts including identity, acculturation/enculturation, generalizations, and stereotyping is presented. These concepts provide a framework within which to address issues and examples pertinent to African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian athletes. A multicultural sport psychology approach incorporating worldview and integrative theory is examined. Finally, future issues in multicultural sport psychology including changes in the population, female athletes of color, and the need for sport psychologists of color are discussed.