Comedian Chris Rock explained in a 2015 interview on Real Sports With Bryant Gumbel that Major League Baseball (MLB) lacks a relatability factor in the African American community. He stated that “Black people and baseball ain’t a good match anymore” ( Axisa, 2015 ). Furthermore, he explained that
George B. Cunningham, Jennifer E. Bruening and Thomas Straub
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to the under representation of African Americans in head coaching positions. In Study 1, qualitative data were collected from assistant football (n = 41) and men’s basketball (n = 16) coaches to examine why coaches sought head coaching positions, barriers to obtaining such positions, and reasons for leaving the coaching profession. In Study 2, assistant football (n = 259) and men’s basketball coaches (n = 114) completed a questionnaire developed from Study 1. Results indicate that although there were no differences in desire to become a head coach, African Americans, relative to Whites, perceived race and opportunity as limiting their ability to obtain a head coaching position and had greater occupational turnover intentions. Context moderated the latter results, as the effects were stronger for African American football coaches than they were for African American basketball coaches. Results have practical implications for the advancement of African American football coaches into head coaching roles.
Ketra L. Armstrong
Sport managers and marketers strategically include individuals with specific characteristics as spokespersons in their persuasive communications (i.e., advertisements, promotional messages, development campaigns, and announcements) to appeal to and influence the attitudes and behaviors of their intended audience. This study was designed to examine African-American students’ responses to race (when moderated by the students' ethnic identification) as a salient characteristic of the person featured in a persuasive sport communication. It sought to examine the role of race in the communication process as: (a) a heuristic/peripheral cue for inducing message responses and evaluation, and (b) a variable that influenced the students' tendency to engage in biased or objective strategies to process the information presented. The results offer an illustration of how sociological variables such as race and ethnicity influence the communication process in general and the means of communicating sport related issues to African-American students in particular.
Darren D. Kelly and Marlene A. Dixon
Despite excellent performance on the field and years of academic and social attention, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I African American male student-athletes continue to struggle to have an optimal and well-rounded college experience at predominantly White institutions of higher education. In particular, the first 2 years of college represent a difficult period during which this group would benefit from new ideas to support their multiple transitions. Mentoring, and more specifically constellation mentoring, provides great promise for aiding in the transition and success of this group (Kram, 1985). Mentoring, like other organizational transition management tools, focuses on helping people navigate a transition into a new setting (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2010). However, constellation mentoring can be simultaneously broad (in terms of range of needs addressed) and specifically tailored to individual needs. This study seeks to establish a framework for how mentoring may provide a valuable tool for addressing the needs of African American male student-athletes as they transition into the college sport, social, and academic atmosphere.
Trevor Bopp and Michael Sagas
The purpose of this study was to ascertain if positional segregation continues at the quarterback position in college football. To determine its existence, we examined differences in run and pass plays executed by African American and White quarterbacks over four different seasons in the NCAA DI-FBS (N = 548). Results revealed significant differences such that African American quarterbacks rushed the ball more and averaged fewer pass attempts than their White counterparts. Likewise, the percentage of rush attempts made by African Americans nearly doubled that of Whites, while White quarterbacks passed the ball 12% more often than their African American counterparts. We argue that these findings support that a new form of discrimination and positional segregation, one we define as racial tasking, may exist.
Astin D. Steward and George B. Cunningham
Across two experimental studies, the purpose of this research project was to examine how Whites evaluate African Americans with a strong racial identity. In Study 1, participants evaluated applicants for an athletic director position. Relative to their weakly identified counterparts, applicants believed to possess a strong racial identity were rated as a poorer fit for the job. Results from Study 2, which was also set within the context of hiring an athletic director, show that participant social dominance orientation moderates the relationship between racial identity and subsequent evaluations. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future directions.
Jörg Vianden and Elizabeth A. Gregg
management majors, women represent 20–30%, and African American men and women comprise 11% and 3%, respectively ( Hancock & Hums, 2011 ). At the research site of the present study, in 2016, the sport management program enrolled 204 male and 42 female undergraduates, including 167 white students and 57
% African American Education: Highly educated (25.2% professional degrees, 33% college graduates, 27% some college, 7% some graduate school) Income: Average between $75,000 and $99,999 a year (household) Experiences Overall the runners had a good experience (M = 6.20, SD = .80). The following is a summary
Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca
homogenous in terms of ethnic profile. Specifically, 20 participants stated their ethnicity as White and four selected Black/African American (Table 1 ). Table 1 Participant Demographic Data Institution Age Year Race/Ethnicity A 19 Sophomore Black/African American A 19 Sophomore White A 19 Sophomore White A
Earl Smith and Angela Hattery
There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.