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Louis Harrison Jr., Albert Y. Bimper Jr., Martin P. Smith and Alvin D. Logan

The African American male student-athlete occupies one of the most peculiar positions in American society. While lauded for their sport performance, they are often viewed as problematic in the broader society. While their performance generates millions of dollars for universities and the NCAA, for most, their labor often produces comparatively little personal gain. While they are recruited as student-athletes, they soon realize that the demands of their athletic commitment renders them athlete-students. Many outside of sport would argue that this is a choice and an informed decision. But we argue much of this is a consequence of the mis-education of the African American student-athlete. We examine this phenomenon through the lens of Critical Race Theory to provide an alternative view of the issues faced by African American student-athletes and suggest an alternative pedagogy that might be investigated to meet their needs.

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Rebecca E. Lee, Scherezade K. Mama, Kristen P. McAlexander, Heather Adamus and Ashley V. Medina

Background:

In the US, public housing developments are typically located in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods that may have poorer quality street level conditions, placing residents in neighborhoods that are less supportive for physical activity (PA). This study investigated the relationship of detailed, objectively assessed street-level pedestrian features with self-reported and measured PA in African American public housing residents.

Methods:

Every street segment (N = 2093) within an 800 m radius surrounding each housing development (N = 12) was systematically assessed using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS). Participants completed an interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short Form and wore a pedometer for 1 week.

Results:

Women reported significantly less vigorous (mean = 1955 vs. 2896 METs), moderate (mean = 733 vs. 1309 mets), walking (mean = 1080 vs. 1376 METs), and total (mean = 3768 vs. 5581 METs) PA on the IPAQ compared with men (all P <.05). Women took fewer pedometer steps per day (M = 3753 vs. 4589) compared with men, but this was not statistically significant. Regression analyses showed that for women, lower speed limits were associated with vigorous; higher street segment density was associated with more moderate PA; lower speed limits, fewer crossing aids, and more lanes were associated with more walking; and, fewer lanes was associated with more overall PA. For men, fewer sidewalk connections were associated with more moderate PA; lower speed limits were associated with more walking; and, lower speed limits was associated with more overall PA.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood factors influence physical activity; in particular, lower speed limits appear most commonly linked with increased physical activity in both men and women.

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Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski

, 2016b ). Moreover, disparities in levels of physical activity continue to exist. Based on the most recent National Health Interview Survey on all age groups ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016b ), 43.6% of African Americans

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Rebecca E. Hasson

 al., 2008 ; Whitt-Glover et al., 2009 ; Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2009 ). Self-reported physical activity levels indicate that African-American and Latino adolescents age 9–13 participate in less leisure-time physical activity than their White counterparts ( Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent and Sarah Burkart

prekindergarten programs; Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2017 ). Compared with their non-Hispanic White counterparts (63%), a higher percentage of African American (68%) children spend a significant portion of their day at preschool centers ( Federal Interagency Forum on Child and

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Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.

African American women have higher rates of obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI; BMI ≥30 kg·m −2 ) ( Flegal, Kruszon-Moran, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2016 ; Ladabaum, Mannalithara, Myer, & Singh, 2014 ; Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014 ). For example, according to National Health and

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Sanaz Nosrat, James W. Whitworth, Nicholas J. SantaBarbara, Shira I. Dunsiger and Joseph T. Ciccolo

have a similar affective response to different resistance exercise intensities. Thus, we aimed to explore the acute psychological effects of resistance exercise intensity with sedentary Black/African American PLWH who experience depressive symptoms. Specifically, the aim of this study was to further

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Rodney P. Joseph, Kathryn E. Royse and Tanya J. Benitez

combination of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA] equivalent to the previously mentioned recommendations). 5 Moreover, when examining the PA patterns of Americans by race and gender, African American (AA) and Hispanic women perform lower PA levels than white women and their male counterparts. For example, only

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Nancy Ambrose Gallagher, Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Jennifer C. Robinson, Elisa R. Torres, Susan L. Murphy and Kristy K. Martyn

Focus-group and photo-voice methodology were used to identify the salient factors of the neighborhood environment that encourage or discourage walking in older, urban African Americans. Twenty-one male (n = 2) and female (n = 19) African Americans age 60 years and older (M = 70 ± 8.7, range = 61–85) were recruited from a large urban senior center. Photographs taken by the participants were used to facilitate focus-group discussions. The most salient factors that emerged included the presence of other people, neighborhood surroundings, and safety from crime, followed by sidewalk and traffic conditions, animals, public walking tracks and trails, and weather. Future walking interventions for older African Americans should include factors that encourage walking, such as the presence of other friendly or active people, attractive or peaceful surroundings, and a sense of safety from crime.

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Jeffrey J. Martin and Nate McCaughtry

Researchers using social cognitive theory and employing built environment constructs to predict physical activity (PA) in inner-city African American children is quite limited. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of important social cognitive variables (e.g., self-efficacy) and built environment constructs (e.g., neighborhood hazards) to predict African American children’s PA. Children (N = 331, ages 10–14) completed questionnaires assessing social cognitive theory constructs and PA. Using multiple regression analyses we were able to account for 19% of the variance in PA. Based on standardized beta weights, the best predictors of PA were time spent outside and social support derived from friends. These findings illuminate the valuable role of PA support from peers, as well as the simple act of going outside for inner-city African American children.