This study examined the relationship between perceived physical competence and actual motor skill competence in African American preschool children at risk of school failure and/or developmental delay (N = 59). A secondary purpose was to determine gender differences and the accuracy of self-perceptions. All children completed a perceived physical competence subscale (Harter & Pike, 1984). Actual motor skill competence was measured by Ulrich’s (1985) Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD), resulting in three scores (locomotor, object-control, and TGMD-Total). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that locomotor competence (p = .99) and gender (p = .81) did not predict perceived physical competence, but object-control competence (p = .01) did significantly predict perceived physical competence. Adding gender to this regression model did not significantly predict perceived physical competence (p = .69). These findings showed that these children are not accurate at perceiving their physical competence.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study was conducted to determine the influence of a motor skill intervention (MSI) program on the perceived competence and social acceptance of African American preschoolers who are at risk of school failure/developmental delay. Two groups of preschoolers enrolled in a compensatory prekindergarten program participated in a 12-week intervention. The motor skill intervention (MSI) group received an MSI program, while the control group (C) received the regular prekindergarten program. All children completed Harter’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance prior to and following the 12-week program. The results indicated that all children, regardless of group, reported high perceived physical and cognitive competence and high perceived maternal and peer acceptance. Additionally, the MSI group reported significantly higher perceived physical competence scores after receiving the MSI program. The MSI group also reported higher perceived physical competence than the C group on postintervention scores. No gender differences were found. It was concluded that perceived competence and social acceptance were enhanced by participation in an MSI program.
Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley
Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.
Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan
participants for the study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. References 1. Jordan JM , Helmick CG , Renner JB , et al . Prevalence of knee symptoms and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis
Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin
Remaining did not report 75% White 6% Asian American 6% African American 6% Hispanic Remaining did not report Exercise Yes/no 93% yes 81% yes Minutes of weekly exercise Mean = 227 min ( SD = 159) Mean = 249 min ( SD = 283) .54 Hours of sitting per day Mean = 8 hr ( SD = 3.8) Mean = 6 hr ( SD = 2
Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin and Ken Perlin
67 kg ( SD ±10), and the mean height was 168 cm ( SD ±10). Body mass index was normal in 15 participants and slightly above normal (25–27) in five. Races and ethnicities included nine White, six Asian, two African American, two Hispanic, and one Egyptian. Participants self-reported to be free of
Emma V. Richardson, Sarah Blaylock, Elizabeth Barstow, Matthew Fifolt and Robert W. Motl
and 72 years with an average age of 50 years. One was Jamaican American, eight were African American, and 23 were White. All participants had relapsing remitting MS with duration of disease ranging between less than 1 year and 47 years. Participants were representative of three states and various
Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele
between those with and without visual impairment. For children with visual impairments, their vision classifications were 36.5% B1, 22.7% B2, and 40.9% B3, respectively. Each family shared the same racial/ethnic makeup, including 18 families identifying as White, two as African American, one as Hispanic
Matthew D. Bird, Graig M. Chow, Gily Meir and Jaison Freeman
females. Within the student-athlete sample, participants identified as being Caucasian ( n = 51), African American ( n = 34), Hispanic ( n = 7), Multi-ethnic ( n = 6), Other ( n = 2), and Asian ( n = 1). Participants in the non-athlete group identified as being Caucasian ( n = 51), African American
Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt
.8%). The majority of the sample was Caucasian (66.0%), followed by African American/Black (10.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (10.5%), Hispanic/Latino (9.9%), and Other (3.1%). Of note, 6.8% of the sample self-reported a history of disordered eating. Measures Participants completed a demographic measure that