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Elizabeth Thompson, Theo H. Versteegh, Tom J. Overend, Trevor B. Birmingham and Anthony A. Vandervoort

Our purpose was to describe heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and perceived exertion (RPE) responses to submaximal isokinetic concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) exercise at the same absolute torque output in older adults. Peak torques for ECC and CON knee extension were determined in healthy older males (n = 13) and females (n = 7). Subjects then performed separate, randomly ordered, 2-min bouts of CON and ECC exercise. Heart rate and MAP increased (p < .001) from resting values throughout both exercise bouts. CON exercise elicited a significantly greater cardiovascular response than ECC exercise after 60 s. Peak HR, MAP, and RPE after CON exercise were greater than after ECC exercise (p < .01). At the same absolute torque output, isokinetic CON knee extension exercise resulted in a significantly greater level of cardiovascular stress than ECC exercise. These results are relevant to resistance testing and exercise in older people.

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging (SOA). Furthermore, we examined the data for racial differences on all-cause mortality. Methods Study Design and Participants The UAB SOA was a longitudinal 8.5 years investigation that examined racial differences in mobility in a sample of Black and White community

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Mark W. Swanson, Eric Bodner, Patricia Sawyer and Richard M. Allman

Little is known about the effect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision, and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross-sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations while controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults.

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Anthony N. Turner, Geoff Marshall, Angelo Noto, Shyam Chavda, Nathan Atlay and David Kirby

.9 ± 15.1 224.6 ± 25.7 283.1 ± 38.2 222.6 ± 31.4 299.3 ± 49.6 −0.9 5.4 * Significantly greater at P  < .05. Anthropometric Data Body mass was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg with a precalibrated electronic weighing scale (Seca Alpha 770, Birmingham, UK). Stature was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

values ( Matthews, Hagstromer, Pober, & Bowles, 2012 ). In any given week, however, multiple factors can influence PA levels or act as barriers to PA, such as weather ( Feinglass et al., 2011 ; Robbins, Jones, Birmingham, & Maly, 2013 ), knee OA pain ( Robbins et al., 2011 ), or acute illness ( Toscos

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Kajetan J. Słomka, Slobodan Jaric, Grzegorz Sobota, Ryszard Litkowycz, Tomasz Skowronek, Marian Rzepko and Grzegorz Juras

capacities of the neuromuscular system to provide outcomes at the instructed intensities when performing tests of motor tasks ( Birmingham, Kramer, Speechley, Chesworth, & Macdermid, 1998 ; Robinson & Dannecker, 2004 ). However, reduced effort does not necessarily provide proportional decreases in most of

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Liezel Hurter, Anna M. Cooper-Ryan, Zoe R. Knowles, Lorna A. Porcellato, Stuart J. Fairclough and Lynne M. Boddy

electronic scale (Seca, Birmingham, UK). Stature and sitting height were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a stadiometer (Leicester Height measure; Seca, Birmingham, UK). Waist circumference was measured at the midpoint between the bottom rib and the iliac crest, to the nearest 0.1 cm using a plastic non

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Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

internal consistency and factorial validity of the teammate behavior subscales (e.g.,  Al-Yaaribi et al., 2016 ). Procedure On receiving ethical approval from the University of Birmingham’s ethics committee, participants were recruited via e-mails, posters, and flyers. They were tested individually. In

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Jonathan S. Slowik, Alek Z. Diffendaffer and Glenn S. Fleisig

approved by the institutional review board at St. Vincent’s Health System (Birmingham, AL). A retrospective review of the pitching biomechanics database at the American Sports Medicine Institute (Birmingham, AL) was performed for data collected from male professional pitchers between 2013 and 2017

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

height and body weight were performed at individual swimming pools with subjects wearing swimwear. Standing height (in meters), measured to the nearest millimeter with a stadiometer (model 217; Seca Ltd, Birmingham, UK), and body weight (in kilograms), measured to the nearest 0.1 kg on a calibrated scale