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Seok Kang, Soonhwan Lee and Kang-Bon Goo

The current study examined how U.S. soccer fans’ multimedia exposure to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa and psychological factors affected purchase intention of sponsored products in an integrated model. The model tested the influence of multimedia exposure on attitude toward the sponsored products, important others’ voices, and self-control toward the brands, which could affect purchase intention. In addition, the influence of past experience with the sponsored brands on purchase intention was tested in the model. A self-reported online survey was distributed to two university communities in the U.S. after the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The analysis of 650 responses reported that multimedia exposure did not directly influence purchase intention of sponsored products, but indirectly affected intention through psychological factors (attitude and subjective norm). U.S. audiences of the 2010 FIFA World Cup tended to be affected by value, excitement, emotional feeling, and others’ voice rather than self-controlled determination for purchase intention of sponsored products. The results tested in the integrated model indicate that multimedia exposure to the FIFA World Cup is likely to foster a social facilitation atmosphere which positively influences purchase intention.

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Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner and Joerg Koenigstorfer

-being, that is, their overall state of wellness, including affective and cognitive components ( Diener, 1984 ). This study looks at the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the host city population in Rio de Janeiro. Like carnival, soccer in general and the hosting of

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David R. Novak and Andrew C. Billings

No longer is there a question of whether the football World Cup is an immense media spectacle; instead, the question now is how immense the World Cup is in the overall human experience. Despite all the global excitement related to the World Cup, the bulk of the general U.S. public is seemingly exempt from the charms of the World Cup. This article examines American media coverage of the 2010 FIFA Men’s World Cup. A qualitative content analysis identified 6 major themes in U.S. popular-press coverage of the event in South Africa, highlighting the communicative undercurrents of media discussions in order to comprehend the disconnect between American attitudes toward the World Cup and those held by the rest of the world. Themes of media discourse range from the increase in participation of Americans in soccer to resistance to mainstreaming soccer in popular culture to how soccer affects cultural literacy. Overall, the results indicate some enthusiasm for World Cup soccer while outlining stronger resistance for the sport in general. Potential future research projects related to this line of inquiry are also suggested.

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Nicholas Watanabe, Pamela Wicker and Grace Yan

The awarding of the hosting of the Football World Cup to Russia and Qatar initiated discussions about temperature and travel distances related to the game. This study examines the effect of weather conditions, travel distances, and rest days—three factors potentially causing fatigue—on running performance using player-level and teamlevel data from the 2014 World Cup. The results show that the heat index (combining temperature and humidity) significantly decreased running performance (number of sprints, high-intensity running), while a clear sky was positively associated with distance covered at high intensity. Travel distance and rest were insignificant. When these models are used to predict running performance at the 2022 Qatar World Cup, the projections show that the combination of heat and wind could hinder the performance of both players and teams and create potentially dangerous conditions. The present study has implications for policy makers regarding the choice of future host countries.

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

marketing campaigns under a single unifying theme. In order to investigate the duration of sponsorships from a truly international perspective, this study features two global MSEs: the Olympic Games and the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. The Olympic Partners (i.e., TOP

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John Nadeau, Norm O’Reilly, Erdinc Cakmak, Louise Heslop and Sonja Verwey

In this paper, the authors address a literature gap with regard to sponsorship outcomes of mega-events and their host countries. This paper is about research that investigates the interrelatedness of three important images—host country, mega-event, and sponsor images—from the perspective of a cameo appearance building on the sponsorship and brand placement literature. It is based on the premise that the host city makes a cameo appearance during a mega-event for sport tourists while the event itself makes a cameo appearance for residents of the host country. The results indicate that mega-events can have a transitory influence, and that cameo effects exist, but that the patterns of relationships are different for sport tourists and residents.

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Marco Visentin, Daniele Scarpi and Gabriele Pizzi

In this research we develop a comprehensive model of sponsorship effects accounting for behavioral outcomes such as actual purchase, purchase intentions, and word-of-mouth referral intention. We recombine constructs that have been traditionally considered separately into three stages—assessment, elaboration, and behavior. We collect data on actual customers of Nike and Adidas flagship stores during the FIFA World Cup sponsorship. Basing on our results, we provide a consumer-oriented perspective on the role of attitude toward the brand, fit, and involvement with the event in determining customer reaction to sponsorship activities.

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Gashaw Abeza, Mads Quist Boesen, Norm O’Reilly and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove

, FIFA first announced Qatar Airways (owned by the state of Qatar) as its Official Partner and Official Airline until the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar ( FIFA, 2017 ). The deal, according to FIFA ( 2017 ), is one of the biggest sporting sponsorships in the world and the largest in the history of Qatar

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Matthew Zimmerman and Lauren Burch

duo’s appearance as between-matches commentators in EA Sports’ popular FIFA World Cup 2014 video game. After the 2014 tournament, they signed with NBC Sports Network, where they host a weekly television show focusing mostly on Premier League soccer and have also covered events including the Running of

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Ju Young Lee

,” begins by exemplifying the power that sport has. For example, it describes the huge audiences and estimated economic values of sporting megaevents such as the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup and how such major sporting events influence and are entwined with our everyday lives (referring, e.g., to water