This study aimed to determine how California secondary physical education teachers perceive the state mandated youth fitness testing for the 5th, 7th, and 9th grades using Fitnessgram. The participants were secondary school physical education teachers (N = 323). A previously validated attitudinal instrument (Keating & Silverman, 2004a) was used to collect the data. The means and standard deviations for each attitude subdomain and the overall attitudes were computed. MANOVA and ANOVA were employed to test the differences in attitudes by demographic and profession-related variables. Teachers’ overall attitudes toward the Fitnessgram were slightly higher than a neutral attitude, indicating slightly positive attitudes on a 7-point Likert scale (M = 4.47, SD = 1.06). The mean scores for the attitude subdomain of cognitive (i.e., usefulness of fitness test results) and the affective (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests, and enjoyment of using fitness test results) components were 4.25 (SD = 1.38), 4.90 (SD = 1.15), and 4.39 (SD = 1.17), respectively. The data from the study suggested that teachers marginally agreed that the test results were useful and that they somewhat enjoyed implementing the test. Class size and student grade levels taught were important profession-related variables to consider regarding teacher attitudes toward the Fitnessgram.
Robert H. Ferguson, Xiaofen D. Keating, Dwan M. Bridges, Jianmin Guan and Li Chen
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang
-related fitness; physical activity PE Metrics written test; FitnessGram; Actical monitor Standard 4: The physically literate individual exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others. Not focused Not assessed Standard 5: The physically literate individual recognizes the value of
Kevin Mercier and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student’s attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA indicated significant differences among the dependent variables for grade and gender. A stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated affect-feelings then affect-enjoyment as variables that predicted these differences. Follow-up tests indicated that gender, and not grade, was the cause of the significant affect-feelings differences. MANOVA for fitness test types and the follow-up DFA indicated that students who completed the FitnessGram test had significantly higher cognitive attitudes than those who completed the President’s Challenge. The results suggest that student gender and the type of fitness test impact and lead to differences in attitudes.
Tao Zhang, Katherine Thomas and Karen Weiller
The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among predisposing (perceived competence and enjoyment), reinforcing (social environments), enabling factors (motor skills, fitness, physical environments) and physical activity among 288 children, and to identify the age and gender differences among participants. The children completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their perceived competence, enjoyment, school social and physical environments, and physical activity. Physical fitness was measured by FITNESSGRAM fitness testing. Students’ motor skills were assessed by PE Metrics. The results indicated that perceived competence and enjoyment predicted physical activity for boys, while perceived competence was the only predictor for girls. Age effects for fitness and skill were significant, as were gender differences for skill, social environment and perceived competence. This study suggests the importance of supportive teachers who provide enjoyable physical education that builds perceived competence for children to improve fitness, motor skill development and physical activity participation. The results support associations between predisposing factors and self-reported physical activity as theorized within the social ecological model.
Summer Davis, Xihe Zhu and Justin Haegele
, & Kohl, 2008 ). Health-related fitness tests (e.g., FitnessGram) are presently the dominate measure for fitness testing in schools and assess the five components of health-related fitness (i.e., body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular strength, and muscular endurance). Once
Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly
FitnessGram ® (Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX), CNPFT (China), ALPHA (European Union), GTO (Russia), SLOfit (Slovenia), NetFit (Hungary), and Move! (Finland). Indeed, several states in the United States and countries including Japan, China, Slovenia Hungary, and Finland have mandated monitoring physical
Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Tao Zhang, Katherine T. Thomas, Xiaoxia Zhang and Xiangli Gu
. Cardiorespiratory fitness, a primary component of health-related physical fitness, is an important factor for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndromes. However, the nationwide FITNESSGRAM® assessment ( The Cooper Institute, 2017 ) in the United States showed age-related declines in the
Brian D. Dauenhauer, Xiaofen D. Keating and Dolly Lambdin
Activity Recall (3DPAR) Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA; required by PEP grant) Daily pedometer steps (within and beyond the school day) 5-Item Fruit and Vegetable Questionnaire (YRBS) 20-Meter Shuttle Run (PACER) Height & weight (BMI) Push Ups FITNESSGRAM ® (partial overlap with GPRA
Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Ray N. Fredrick III and Stephen Silverman
have played a role in pedagogy for quite some time ( Silverman, 1997 ). Examples of digital technologies are evident in the use of FitnessGram ® ( Pluim & Gard, 2018 ), pedometers ( McCaughtry, Oliver, Dillon, & Martin, 2008 ), social media ( Goodyear, Casey, & Kirk, 2014 ), and gamification
Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney and Virginia Gray
training program on cardiorespiratory endurance. The preservice teachers used the FITNESSGRAM one-mile run test to measure cardiorespiratory endurance. All preservice teachers were trained on test protocol. The one-mile run test was administered at the request of the site directors who surveyed