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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offer potential to quantify mechanical loading during functional rehabilitative tasks. Recently, mediolateral loading imbalances were highlighted in a case study of ankle sprain injury in elite male soccer. 11 However, to enhance the clinical application of GPS

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Laura C. Reid, Jason R. Cowman, Brian S. Green and Garrett F. Coughlan

Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated.

Objective:

To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union.

Design:

Case series.

Setting:

Professional Rugby Union club team.

Participants:

8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg).

Intervention:

Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game.

Main Outcome Measures:

Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured.

Results:

Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables.

Conclusions:

An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

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Wayne Brown and Matt Greig

The epidemiology and etiology of ankle sprain injuries in soccer have been well described. Retrospective analysis of epidemiological data identified an English Premier League player sustaining a high lateral ankle sprain. GPS data collated during the training session in which the injury was sustained, and subsequent rehabilitation sessions, were analyzed to quantify uniaxial PlayerLoad metrics. The injured player revealed a 3:1 asymmetrical loading pattern in the mediolateral plane and multiaxial high loading events which might present the inciting event to injury. The high magnitude, asymmetrical and multiplanar loading is consistent with lateral ankle sprain etiology.

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Jeroen de Bruijn, Henk van der Worp, Mark Korte, Astrid de Vries, Rick Nijland and Michel Brink

Corporation, Annapolis, MD, US). This system consists of a chest strap, a data module, GPS-trackers, and a laptop including Zephyr ™ software. The chest strap has the ability to measure heart rate due to 2 electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors and the GPS trackers can be easily attached to the chest strap using an

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Matt Greig and Philip Nagy

Context:

Epidemiological studies highlight a prevalence of lumbar vertebrae injuries in cricket fast bowlers, with governing bodies implementing rules to reduce exposure. Analysis typically requires complex and laboratory-based biomechanical analyses, lacking ecological validity. Developments in GPS microtechnologies facilitate on-field measures of mechanical intensity, facilitating screening toward prevention and rehabilitation.

Objective:

To examine the efficacy of using GPS-mounted triaxial accelerometers to quantify accumulated body load and to investigate the effect of GPS-unit placement in relation to epidemiological observations.

Design:

Repeated measures, field-based.

Setting:

Regulation cricket pitch.

Participants:

10 male injury-free participants recruited from a cricket academy (18.1 ± 0.6 y).

Intervention:

Each participant was fitted with 2 GPS units placed at the cervicothoracic and lumbar spines to measure triaxial acceleration (100 Hz). Participants were instructed to deliver a 7-over spell of fast bowling, as dictated by governing-body guidelines.

Main Outcome Measures:

Triaxial total accumulated body and the relative uniaxial contributions were calculated for each over.

Results:

There was no significant main effect for overs bowled, in either total load or the triaxial contributions to total load. This finding suggests no cumulative fatigue effect across the 10-over spell. However, there was a significant main effect for GPS-unit location, with the lumbar unit exposed to significantly greater load than the cervicothoracic unit in each of the triaxial planes.

Conclusions:

There was no evidence to suggest that accumulated load significantly increased as a result of spell duration. In this respect the governing-body guidelines for this age group can be considered safe, or potentially even conservative. However, the observation of higher body load at the lumbar spine than at the cervicothoracic spine supports epidemiological observations of injury incidence. GPS microtechnologies might therefore be considered in screening and monitoring of players toward injury prevention and/or during rehabilitation.

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

potential for wearable microtechnology devices as a means of prescribing and monitoring bowling workload. The microtechnology described typically refers to a triaxial accelerometer embedded within a global positioning satellite (GPS) unit. This unit is typically worn in a customized vest that positions the

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Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden and Matt Greig

is the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test (DAFT), 14 which is a standardized routine that elicits a quantifiable physiological response to exercise to allow the measurement of mechanical loading. Global positioning systems (GPS) with triaxial accelerometry have been used to measure mechanical loading which

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Reed D. Gurchiek, Hasthika S. Rupasinghe Arachchige Don, Lasanthi C. R. Pelawa Watagoda, Ryan S. McGinnis, Herman van Werkhoven, Alan R. Needle, Jeffrey M. McBride and Alan T. Arnholt

camera, 4 photocell, 1 and global positioning system (GPS)-determined 5 position–time data along with radar 1 and magnetic-inertial measurement unit 2 , 3 (MIMU)–determined velocity–time data. MIMU methods are attractive because they can provide additional metrics to augment the force

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

uncontrolled) conditions. The results show that reliability of the 6 biomechanical variables was very good to excellent (within-day intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) range: .90–.98; between-day intraclass correlation coefficient (2,2): range .96–.99). Runners were also fitted with a GPS-enabled watch

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Natalie L. Myers, Guadalupe Mexicano and Kristin V. Aguilar

written in the English language • Studies published in the last 5 years (2014–2018) Exclusion Criteria • Studies that did not use the 1∶4 ACWR time frame • Studies that included external workload variables, such as GPS metrics • Studies that included all injuries or did not specify the type of injuries