The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games.
Peter Elsborg, Gregory M. Diment and Anne-Marie Elbe
Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons
environment and policy that determine food availability ( Symmank et al., 2017 ). We previously reported on an expert review of the food provision for the London 2012 Olympic Games and found that there was limited choice of lower energy, low fat, and gluten-free items to meet the needs of athletes, as well as
Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Brennan K. Berg and Rhema D. Fuller
Games. Highly institutionalized across the globe, the Olympic Games rely on institutional rules and norms that preserve the status quo. For instance, International Olympic Committee (IOC) Rule 50 states the following: “No kind of demonstration or political, religious or racial propaganda is permitted in
Claudio M. Rocha
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and organizing committees have strived to build popular support for the Olympic Games (OG) because local support has been considered a key element to host successful Games ( Deccio & Baloglu, 2002 ; Gursoy & Kendall, 2006 ; Preuss & Solberg, 2006 ; Waitt
Udi Carmi and Orr Levental
During its first decade, Israel sent delegations to three Olympic Games: Helsinki (1952), Melbourne (1956) and Rome (1960). 1 No one believed these delegations would attain any outstanding competitive results. Indeed, Israel’s participation in these Olympic Games was motivated more by political
Kristine Toohey and Tracy Taylor
Since 1972, there has been an association between terrorism, violence, and the Olympic Games. The events of September 11, 2001, however, clearly reescalated concerns about the Games being a terrorist target. This conceptual article discusses the theories of the risk society and the precautionary principle to understand and interpret how visitors to the most recent Summer Games, Athens 2004, framed their decision to attend. Consistent with risk theory, a strong public and financial commitment to safety at the Games was evident, with the organizers undertaking wide-ranging large-scale risk management initiatives. Athens attendees, while displaying tenets of risk aversion and engagement with a discourse of fear, also showed resilience, resistance, and indifference to potential terrorism threats. Implications for both theory and practice are noted.
Inge Derom and Donna Lee
The City of Vancouver, British Columbia strategically designed and implemented a municipal health promotion policy—the Vancouver Active Communities policy—to leverage the 2010 Olympic Games. The goal of the policy was to increase physical activity participation among Vancouver residents by 2010.
In this paper, we conduct a critical policy analysis of health promotion policy documents that were available on the City of Vancouver’s website.
We elaborate on the background to the policy and more specifically we examine its content: the problem definition, policy goals, and policy instruments.
Our analysis showed inconsistency within the policy, particularly because the implemented policy instruments were not designed to address needs of the identified target populations in need of health promotion efforts, which were used to legitimize the approval of funding for the policy. Inconsistency across municipal policies, especially in terms of promoting physical activity among low-income residents, was also problematic.
If other municipalities seek to leverage health promotion funding related to hosting sport mega-events, the programs and services should be designed to benefit the target populations used to justify the funding. Furthermore, municipalities should clearly indicate how funding will be maintained beyond the life expectancy of the mega-event.
Heather J. Gibson, Christine Xueqing Qi and James J. Zhang
Although there is growing awareness of the relationship between hosting mega-sporting-events and destination image, there is little empirical evidence documenting what images people hold before an event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the images young Americans hold of China both as a tourist destination and as the host of the 2008 Olympic Games. Specifically, the relationships among destination image, travel intentions, and tourist characteristics were explored. A total of 350 college students were surveyed before the close of the Athens Olympic Games. Overall, the respondents perceived China and the Beijing Olympic Games positively. Destination image was significantly (p < .05) predictive of the intention to travel to China and the Olympic Games. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that destination image partially mediated the relationship between past international travel experience and intention to travel. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed with a view to promoting China as a tourist destination and the host of the Olympic Games.
By referring to criteria established by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for including sports in the Olympic Games and considering the maturation of the sports movement for the disabled, it is reasonable to conclude that certain sports reserved exclusively for the disabled can be made eligible for inclusion in the Olympic Games as medal events. A confounding factor in pursuit of inclusion in the Olympic Games is the uncritical willingness of the established international sports organizations for the disabled to amalgamate in order to communicate as a single voice with the IOC. Created in the process is a formal institutionalization of sports programs for the disabled. Despite invitations to stage demonstration events in recent Olympic Games, sports organizations have failed to take measures necessary to qualify for full integration into the Olympic movement. Reorganization is called for on the basis of versions of sports that would lend themselves to integration.
Sheranne Fairley, Pamm Kellett and B. Christine Green
Volunteers have become essential to the delivery of sport events. Megaevents, such as the Olympic Games, rely on a large number of volunteers for the successful running of the event, some of whom travel to volunteer. This study investigates the motives of a group of people who volunteered at the Sydney Olympics as they prepared to travel to volunteer at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Four key motives were identified: (a) nostalgia, (b) camaraderie and friendship, (c) Olympic (i.e., subcultural) connection, and (d) sharing and recognition of expertise. The motives identified distinguish event volunteer tourists from other volunteer tourists and from other event volunteers. It is suggested that the recruitment, retention, and reacquisition of event volunteers will be served by understanding the motives and experiences of repeat event volunteers.