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Banu Unver, Emin Ulas Erdem and Eda Akbas

Pes planus is a prevalent chronic condition with a reported incidence of 2% to 23% in the adult population and characterized by the lower medial longitudinal arch (MLA) with calcaneal eversion. 1 – 3 The most common problem associated with pes planus is excessive pronation during weight

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Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.

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E. William Vogler, Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst and Barbara Cusimano

Classroom processes were analyzed to study the effectiveness of main-streaming in physical education. Thirty teachers and 30 mainstreamed handicapped students were videotaped in elementary school P.E. classes. Data on their classroom behavior were coded using standard systematic ALT–PE “effective teaching” observation practices. There were many favorable classroom processes to indicate that mainstreaming was a good context for both handicapped and nonhandicapped students (e.g., comparable ALT–PE percentages and a more positive than negative interaction between teacher and student). Variables most predictive of ALT–PE were interruptions in class and whether a teacher was itinerant or not.

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Anne-Mette Bredahl

The experience of participation in physical activity was explored in a qualitative study with twenty Norwegian adults with physical and visual disabilities. The interviews showed that more than 75% of negative experiences reported in this study originated from physical education (PE), suggesting that this was a particularly challenging arena. The negative experiences were centered in these common themes: experiences of not being included, experiences of failing, and experiences of not being listened to. The interviews were analyzed applying an existential-phenomenological approach. The participants with relatively minor degrees of disability and with the least visible disabilities were the ones who most often reported negative experiences regarding PE. This suggests the experiences were not generated solely by the actual physical or sensory limitations, but equally by how well the participants’ challenges were understood by their teachers and to what degree adaptations were implemented.

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Viviene A. Temple and Jeff W. Walkley

The purpose was to describe the engagement of students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and their nondisabled peers (NDP) in regular physical education lessons and to determine whether this varied with gender, grade, or disability. Participants were 24 students with MID and 48 NDP Data on student behavior were gathered using an Academic Learning Time—Physical Education (ALT-PE) systematic observation instrument. Each lesson, including one student with MID and two same-gender NDP, was observed on five occasions (120 total). Data from primary and secondary levels were pooled. A MANOVA with PE Time, PE Engaged, Motor Engaged (ME), and Motor Appropriate (MA) as dependent measures revealed significant main effects for disability and gender. Follow-up analyses disclosed that the only difference between boys and girls was PE Time and that engagement level showed no difference. Students with MID spent significantly less time (p ≤ .01) than NDPs at each level.

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Rick Tiller and Bob Moss

Column-editor : Robert I. Moss

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Lacey Nordsiden, Bonnie L. Van Lunen, Martha L. Walker, Nelson Cortes, Maria Pasquale and James A. Onate


Many styles of foot pads are commonly applied to reduce immediate pain and pressure under the foot.


To examine the effect of 3 different foot pads on peak plantar pressure (PPP) and mean plantar pressure (MPP) under the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) during slow running.


A 4 (pad) × 4 (mask) repeated-measures design.


University athletic training clinic and fitness facility.


20 physically active participants, 12 men (19.7 ± 1.3 y, 181.5 ± 6.3 cm, 83.6 ± 12.3 kg) and 8 women (20.8 ± 1.5 y, 172.7 ± 11.2 cm, 69.9 ± 14.2 kg) with navicular drop greater than or equal to 10 mm, no history of surgery to the lower extremity, and no history of pain or injury to the first MTPJ in the past 6 months.


PPP and MPP were evaluated under 4 areas of the foot: the rear foot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and first MTPJ. Four pad conditions (no pad, metatarsal dome, U-shaped pad, and donut-shaped pad) were evaluated during slow running. All measurements were taken on a standardized treadmill using the Pedar in-shoe pressure-measurement system.

Main Outcome Measures:

PPP and MPP in 4 designated foot masks during slow running.


The metatarsal dome produced significant decreases in MPP (163.07 ± 49.46) and PPP (228.73 ± 63.41) when compared with no pad (P < .001). The U-shaped pad significantly decreased MPP (168.68 ± 50.26) when compared with no pad (P < .001). The donut-shaped pad increased PPP compared with no pad (P < .001).


The metatarsal dome was most effective in reducing both peak and mean plantar pressure. Other factors such as pad comfort, type of activity, and material availability must also be considered. Further research should be conducted on the applicability to other foot types and symptomatic subjects.

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Sajad Bagherian, Nader Rahnama, Erik A. Wikstrom, Micheal A. Clark and Faroogh Rostami

. These compensations are consistent with the poor postural control associated with CAI. 13 Limitations This study is not without limitations. For example, we did not evaluate lower extremity alignment (e.g., pes planus or pes cavus), nor did we quantify the number of previous sprains and/or giving

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Jason Michael Mensinger