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Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Ray N. Fredrick III and Stephen Silverman

predominantly been conceptualized as unambiguously beneficial for pedagogy ( Selwyn, 2014 ). In so doing, Selwyn argued that uncritical views of technology have sometimes overexaggerated the potential of technology to achieve aims in schools and school systems. In physical education (PE), digital technologies

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Kasper Mäkelä, Mirja Hirvensalo and Peter Whipp

One of the cause’s célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the profession. Seven job satisfaction factors were identified with principal component analysis and logistic regression models used to study the likelihood of teachers’ intention to stay in the profession. Those PE teachers who intended to stay in teaching were more satisfied with the resources, work community, their own expertise, recognition of teaching, manageability of work, students, as well as the quality of work. It was also found that satisfaction and commitment to teaching were strong predictors for staying in the profession. For early career teachers, manageability and quality of work were the factors that were strongly related to their intention to stay in the profession.

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Simon J. Roberts and Stuart J. Fairclough

The common practice of annually age grouping children in education, likely done under the assumption of similarly aged children sharing similar abilities and learner characteristics, may actually undermine equity and fairness in student assessments. This strategy has received criticism for (dis) advantaging those older children born closer to the “cut off” date for entry into an academic year and for promoting the existence of relative age effects (RAEs). This paper explores the possibility that RAEs may be prevalent in the end-of-year attainment levels of junior high school physical education (PE) students. The PE end-of-year attainment scores were collected from 582 students in grades 7, 8 and 9 (aged 11–14 years) in the United Kingdom (UK). The results from a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a significant main effect for month of birth (p = .001) and gender (p = .001). Follow up interviews with heads of PE (HoPE) revealed a lack of awareness of RAEs and inconsiderate assessment strategies, which deviated from the requirements of the formal curriculum. The implications of RAEs in school PE assessment and possible recommendations are discussed.

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Thomas Curran and Martyn Standage

Motivation research is central to understanding why certain students exhibit high levels of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement with learning, and why others lack interest, display boredom, and withdraw effort (i.e., are disaffected). In this review, tenets within self-determination theory (SDT) are used to provide a theoretically-informed account of student engagement and disaffection in the context of school physical education (PE). Our review centers on the proposition within SDT that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (i.e., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) provide the energizing basis for optimal motivational functioning and wellness. Teacher strategies and class structures are reviewed in the context of whether they satisfy or frustrate these psychological needs. To amalgamate the reviewed literature, a mediated model depicting a ‘student-teacher dialectical’ framework is presented. Several practitioner recommendations for supporting student engagement in PE are then offered. Lastly, findings of past interventions within the school context are presented and discussed.

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Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.

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Weiyun Chen and Andrew J. Hypnar

Motivations for and positive attitudes toward physical activity (PA) developed during childhood are likely to be carried over to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between three psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education (PE), and attitudes toward participation in leisure-time PA among upper elementary school students. One thousand and seventy-three students in grades 3-5 anonymously and voluntarily completed three measures, including Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations, and Attitudes, which were modified from previous works and judged by a panel of experts to ensure the wording of each item was understandable for upper elementary school students. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, composite reliability coefficient, and multilevel confirmatory factor analysis methods. The results indicated that the composite reliability coefficients of the measures were above .60, ranging from .62 to .79. The results of structural equation model indicated that satisfactions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were significantly instrumental to the enhancement of autonomous motivation in PE settings and attitudes toward PA participation. Elementary school students’ having fun, obtaining benefits, and being with friends were all major motivational factors contributing to positive attitudes toward PA outside of school.

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Victoria Emily Warburton and Christopher Mark Spray

Purpose:

In light of the extensive empirical evidence that implicit theories have important motivational consequences for young people across a range of educational settings we seek to provide a summary of, and personal reflection on, implicit theory research and practice in physical education (PE).

Overview:

We first provide an introduction to the key constructs and theoretical propositions associated with implicit theories. We then include a brief summary of the research findings on ability beliefs in school PE, which we draw on to identify several key issues that we feel are crucial to furthering our understanding of this topic. We conclude by offering a number of ideas for future research and discuss the potential misinterpretation of implicit theories when applied to professional practice in PE.

Conclusions:

We argue that researchers need to address more nuanced questions around implicit theories to prevent this area of inquiry stalling. Moreover, we need to provide teachers with more specific recommendations to help them integrate theory and research into practice.

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E. William Vogler, Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst and Barbara Cusimano

Classroom processes were analyzed to study the effectiveness of main-streaming in physical education. Thirty teachers and 30 mainstreamed handicapped students were videotaped in elementary school P.E. classes. Data on their classroom behavior were coded using standard systematic ALT–PE “effective teaching” observation practices. There were many favorable classroom processes to indicate that mainstreaming was a good context for both handicapped and nonhandicapped students (e.g., comparable ALT–PE percentages and a more positive than negative interaction between teacher and student). Variables most predictive of ALT–PE were interruptions in class and whether a teacher was itinerant or not.

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Ron E. McBride

In a three-phase study, the routine task concerns of physical educators were identified for a planned adaptation of the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire. The first phase of the study identified a list of some 500 concerns, which inductive analysis reduced to 10. A 10-item questionnaire followed by a 5-point Likert scale was then sent to a sample of 500 physical educators. Analysis of the data identified 5 items for use in the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire–Physical Education (TCQ–PE). In the final phase of the study, the newly adapted questionnaire was tested on a sample of experienced physical educators. The strong correlation coefficients obtained support the use of these items in the revised instrument. The TCQ–PE, in conjunction with other assessment techniques, represents a valuable data gathering source for continued research into physical education teacher concerns.

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Patricia Patterson and Nell Faucette

The purpose of the study was to determine if there were differences in attitudes toward physical activity for children in classes taught by specialists versus those taught by nonspecialists. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 414) from four schools participated in the study. Two schools had P.E. specialists teaching the P.E. classes while the other two schools had classroom teachers teaching the classes. Attitudes were assessed by employing the Children’s Attitude Toward Physical Activity (CATPA) inventory (Simon & Smoll, 1974). Although discriminant function analysis resulted in a significant difference between the attitudes of both groups of children, only 57.48% of the cases were correctly classified. These results suggest that teachers play a minimal role in children’s attitudes toward physical activity. It was recommended that additional studies be conducted that examine and control for multiple factors influencing attitude formation.