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Maurice W. Martin, Sarah Martin and Paul Rosengard

Background:

PE2GO is a self-contained physical education (PE) program that provides classroom teachers with the tools they need to lead developmentally appropriate PE lessons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the PE2GO pilot programs in 6 school districts across the United States.

Methods:

We used paper and pencil surveys at pre intervention (n = 114) and mid intervention (n = 94) and an electronic survey at post intervention (n = 65). In addition an electronic survey was sent to administrators at preintervention (n = 18); focus groups were conducted with teachers at mid intervention for a broader perspective. The study took place September 2004 through May 2005.

Results:

Results indicate that teachers were satisfied with the PE2GO program and the perceived effects it had on their students. Teachers reported that students increased their time engaged in physical activity (128.7−181.1 minutes per week pre-to-post intervention). Administrator support was important (ie, associated with improvement), but not always present.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the PE2GO program holds promise for the concept of providing in-class physical activity opportunities for students.

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Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.

Methods:

Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.

Results:

Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

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Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve and Yong-Gwan Song

Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students’ amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students’ PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students’ end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

ago ( Poulain et al., 2004 ); (ii) until recently, this population practiced agriculture or animal husbandry, occupations both entailing high levels of outdoor physical activity up to an advanced age ( Pes et al., 2013 ). An ongoing survey is being performed in one LBZ village (Villagrande Strisaili

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Hannah R. Thompson, Bhaani K. Singh, Annie Reed, Robert García, Monica Lounsbery, Benjamin D. Winig and Kristine A. Madsen

School physical education (PE) is one of the most valuable opportunities to improve youth cardiovascular fitness. 1 – 4 PE has been shown to contribute more than one-third of students’ recommended daily 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity 5 and supports the acquisition of skills

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Johannes Raabe, Katrin Schmidt, Johannes Carl and Oliver Höner

in regard to the engagement); and relatedness (i.e., feeling like a valued and accepted member of a group). In turn, need fulfillment is influenced by various motivational determinants—or social factors—within the environment. It is not surprising that the role of physical education (PE) teachers and

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Barbara E. Bechter, James A. Dimmock, Joshua L. Howard, Peter R. Whipp and Ben Jackson

School-based physical education (PE) classes, which are standard components of school curricula in many countries, provide numerous benefits to students. Research has shown that students’ experiences in PE may predict their leisure-time physical activity outcomes (e.g.,  Hagger, Chatzisarantis

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip

Latinx, female, and low socioeconomic status adolescents are less physically active than White, male, and more affluent youth, respectively. 5 Physical education (PE) classes provide an opportunity for all youth to engage in regular PA, especially in low-resourced communities. 6 – 8 Moreover, because

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Rob J. Rotunda and Stuart Ryan

the probability that they engage in an active lifestyle in their formative years and beyond ( USDHHS, 2018 ). In fact, new to Healthy People 2020 are objectives related to policies targeting younger children through physical activity in childcare settings, as well as recess and physical education (PE

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Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Ryan Sacko and Michaela Schenkelburg

(PE) or PA, rather than a discipline-specific specialist. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) standards delineate that preschool teachers are expected to “understand content knowledge and resources in PA [and] PE” ( NAEYC, 2011 , p. 36). The Head Start Learning