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Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.

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Maurice W. Martin, Sarah Martin and Paul Rosengard

Background:

PE2GO is a self-contained physical education (PE) program that provides classroom teachers with the tools they need to lead developmentally appropriate PE lessons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the PE2GO pilot programs in 6 school districts across the United States.

Methods:

We used paper and pencil surveys at pre intervention (n = 114) and mid intervention (n = 94) and an electronic survey at post intervention (n = 65). In addition an electronic survey was sent to administrators at preintervention (n = 18); focus groups were conducted with teachers at mid intervention for a broader perspective. The study took place September 2004 through May 2005.

Results:

Results indicate that teachers were satisfied with the PE2GO program and the perceived effects it had on their students. Teachers reported that students increased their time engaged in physical activity (128.7−181.1 minutes per week pre-to-post intervention). Administrator support was important (ie, associated with improvement), but not always present.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the PE2GO program holds promise for the concept of providing in-class physical activity opportunities for students.

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E. William Vogler, Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst and Barbara Cusimano

Classroom processes were analyzed to study the effectiveness of main-streaming in physical education. Thirty teachers and 30 mainstreamed handicapped students were videotaped in elementary school P.E. classes. Data on their classroom behavior were coded using standard systematic ALT–PE “effective teaching” observation practices. There were many favorable classroom processes to indicate that mainstreaming was a good context for both handicapped and nonhandicapped students (e.g., comparable ALT–PE percentages and a more positive than negative interaction between teacher and student). Variables most predictive of ALT–PE were interruptions in class and whether a teacher was itinerant or not.

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Duncan Macfarlane and Wong Tung Kwong

Levels of activity and enjoyment were measured in 73 Hong Kong primary school children (39 girls and 34 boys), during regularly scheduled physical education (PE) classes. Classroom activities were classified into one of 4 types (ball games, athletics, gymnastics and free play). Activity levels were monitored by heart rate telemetry and by direct observation (CARS), whilst enjoyment was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Results showed that the average PE class used 22 minutes of the scheduled 35 class time, whilst the students spent 3.7 min in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) activity (60-90%HRR), and nearly 50% of the children spent less than 2 minutes with their heart rate above 159 beats · min−1. There were no significant differences in activity levels between genders. Ball games and free play generally produced statistically higher heart rates and CARS values than gymnastics. The levels of enjoyment were low (3.7 − 1.0), but did not vary significantly between gender or activity type. A variety of social and environmental factors may contribute to these low activity and enjoyment levels.

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Anne-Mette Bredahl

The experience of participation in physical activity was explored in a qualitative study with twenty Norwegian adults with physical and visual disabilities. The interviews showed that more than 75% of negative experiences reported in this study originated from physical education (PE), suggesting that this was a particularly challenging arena. The negative experiences were centered in these common themes: experiences of not being included, experiences of failing, and experiences of not being listened to. The interviews were analyzed applying an existential-phenomenological approach. The participants with relatively minor degrees of disability and with the least visible disabilities were the ones who most often reported negative experiences regarding PE. This suggests the experiences were not generated solely by the actual physical or sensory limitations, but equally by how well the participants’ challenges were understood by their teachers and to what degree adaptations were implemented.

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Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.

Methods:

Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.

Results:

Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

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Viviene A. Temple and Jeff W. Walkley

The purpose was to describe the engagement of students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and their nondisabled peers (NDP) in regular physical education lessons and to determine whether this varied with gender, grade, or disability. Participants were 24 students with MID and 48 NDP Data on student behavior were gathered using an Academic Learning Time—Physical Education (ALT-PE) systematic observation instrument. Each lesson, including one student with MID and two same-gender NDP, was observed on five occasions (120 total). Data from primary and secondary levels were pooled. A MANOVA with PE Time, PE Engaged, Motor Engaged (ME), and Motor Appropriate (MA) as dependent measures revealed significant main effects for disability and gender. Follow-up analyses disclosed that the only difference between boys and girls was PE Time and that engagement level showed no difference. Students with MID spent significantly less time (p ≤ .01) than NDPs at each level.

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Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve and Yong-Gwan Song

Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students’ amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students’ PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students’ end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

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Edited by Thomas W. Rowland

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

ago ( Poulain et al., 2004 ); (ii) until recently, this population practiced agriculture or animal husbandry, occupations both entailing high levels of outdoor physical activity up to an advanced age ( Pes et al., 2013 ). An ongoing survey is being performed in one LBZ village (Villagrande Strisaili