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Rafael L. Kons, Kai Krabben, David L. Mann, Gabriela Fischer and Daniele Detanico

Judo for athletes with vision impairment (VI judo) is a Paralympic sport that follows the same rules as Olympic judo but with one main exception, as the match is initiated with athletes positioning their grips on the opponents’ jacket ( judogi ; International Paralympic Committee, 2018 ). This

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William R. Falcão, Gordon A. Bloom and Todd M. Loughead

The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches’ perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches’ perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

Trunk, pelvis, and leg movements are important for performance in sprint kayaking. Para-kayaking is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete in 3 classification groups. The purpose of this study was to identify how physical impairments impact on performance by examining: differences in 3-dimensional joint range of motion (RM) between 10 (4 females and 6 males) elite able-bodied kayakers and 41 (13 females and 28 males) elite para-kayakers from the 3 classification groups, and which joint angles were correlated with power output during high-intensity kayak ergometer paddling. There were significant differences in RM between the able-bodied kayakers and the 3 para-kayak groups for the shoulders (flexion, rotation: able-bodied kayakers < para-kayakers); trunk and pelvis (rotation: able-bodied kayakers > para-kayakers); and legs (hip, knee, and ankle flexion: able-bodied kayakers > para-kayakers) during paddling. Furthermore, athletes with greater impairment exhibited lower trunk and leg RM compared with those with less impairment. Significant positive correlations were observed for both males and females between power output and peak shoulder and trunk flexion; trunk and pelvis rotation RM; and hip, knee, and ankle flexion RM. This information is important for understanding how key kinematic and kinetic variables for para-kayaking performance vary between athletes from different classification groups.

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Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.

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Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi and John McPhee

wheelchair curling. These investigations would provide unprecedented insights into the physical demands of this Paralympic sport. One of the main objectives of biomechanists is to evaluate the dynamics (ie, forces and moments) associated with human movements. Experimentally measuring the forces of individual

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

flexion-extension. 20 Cross-country sit-skiing is an endurance Paralympic sport in which the athletes sit in a sledge that is mounted on a pair of skis and propel themselves using poles. Even though, to the authors’ knowledge, there has been no study of injury prevalence in cross-country sit-skiing, we

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Ljudmila Zaletelj

introduction to the Paralympic Games. The chapters are written in a clear and concise manner, and the text is accessible to a range of readers. This volume would be a wonderful asset to anyone who is directly involved in Paralympic sport (for instance, sport administrators, sport managers, coaches, and

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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom

that were designed on skills and tactics focused on able-bodied athletes ( Cregan et al., 2007 ; Douglas & Hardin, 2014 ). Paralympic sport is growing in participation and popularity, and thus, coaches of athletes with a disability need continuing support and meaningful learning opportunities to

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns and Fergal Jones

), Bangladeshi ( n  = 3), Australian ( n  = 2), Swedish ( n  = 1), Indian ( n  = 1) Male ( n  = 60) Female ( n  = 22) Note . * Boccia is a team sport similar to boules as teams aim for their balls to finish as close as possible to a target ball or “jack”. Boccia has been a Paralympic sport since 1984. Measures

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

.J. , & Tweedy , S.M. ( 2016 ). The 2016 Paralympic Games: A classification primer . Palaestra, 30 ( 3 ), 16 – 20 . Beckman , E.M. , Connick , M.J. , & Tweedy , S.M. ( 2017 ). Assessing muscle strength for the purpose of classification in Paralympic sport: A review and recommendations . Journal of