). Each participant completed two experimental trials, consuming a hydrogel CES (HGel) or standard carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES-Std) in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Preliminary Measures One week before the first experimental trial, the height, nude body mass, fat, and fat
Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa
Sebastien Racinais, Martin Buchheit, Johann Bilsborough, Pitre C. Bourdon, Justin Cordy and Aaron J. Coutts
To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes.
Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31–33°C, humidity 34–50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp.
The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P < .05). In addition, plasma volume (PV, CO rebreathing, +2.68 [0.83; 4.53] mL/kg) and distance covered during both the YoYoIR2 (+311 [260; 361] m) and the STD (+45.6 [13.9; 77.4] m) increased postcamp (P < .01). None of the performance changes showed clear correlations with PV changes (r < .24), but the improvements in running STD distance in hot environment were correlated with changes in hematocrit during the heat-response test (r = –.52, 90%CI [–.77; –.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26).
Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.
Wayne W. Munson, Stanley B. Baker and Herberta M. Lundegren
A systematic strength training and structured leisure counseling program was investigated to determine the effects on self-esteem, leisure attitudes, leisure behaviors, and muscular fitness of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: strength training and leisure counseling (STLC), strength training and informal discussion (STD), or a no-treatment control group (NT). The experimental groups met 3 times a week, 90 minutes per session for 7 weeks. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences among the three groups on measures of self-esteem, leisure attitudes, or leisure behaviors. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated that there were no significant differences between the STLC and STD groups on muscular fitness, although both had significant pre- to posttest gains. The STLC and STD groups rated their treatments high on an attitude toward treatment measure, but neither group was significantly more positive about it than the other.
Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen
Electrocardiogram (ECG) Raw RR Data for Guided and Nonguided Breathing Over 1-Minute Recordings 1-min measure TEE as a CV% 90% CI Std. difference 90% CI Qualitative inference Mean bias (ms) 90% CI PPG vs ECG, GB 3.8 3.1; 5.0 0.06 0.05; 0.08 Trivial 2.0 1.3; 2.7 H7 vs ECG, GB 6.1 4.9; 8.1 0.10 0.08; 0.13 Trivial −0
Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright
equality of the variances was assumed or not, the t test results revealed that the equality of the measures could not be significantly rejected. Table 1 Reliability Between Observers: t -test for Equality of Means for Subscales 1, 2 and 3 Items Observers N Mean Std. deviation Std. error mean t -test for
Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade and David Kavanagh
Maria , L. ( 2005 ). Integration of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy to improve HIV medication adherence and reduce substance use among HIV-positive men and women: Results of a pilot project . AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 19 , 31 – 39 . PubMed doi:10.1089/apc.2005
Jaehun Jung, Willie Leung, Bridgette Marie Schram and Joonkoo Yun
Characteristics and Outcomes of Individual Studies in This Meta-Analysis Study Outcomes M (YWOD) SD Sample N (YWOD) M (YWD) SD Sample N (YWD) Std. diff. in means Age ( M ) Published year Measurement type Beutum et al. ( 2013 ) Total daily PA counts — — 9 — — 9 0.66 7–11 2013 Accelerometer Sandt and Frey
Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr and Lawrence L. Spriet
experimental trial timeline. Numbers are in minutes. HR indicates heart rate; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; Std., standard; T c , core temperature. *If applicable. Familiarization Trial Goaltenders performed a familiarization trial where they drank ad libitum during breaks in play. This trial estimated