). Each participant completed two experimental trials, consuming a hydrogel CES (HGel) or standard carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES-Std) in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Preliminary Measures One week before the first experimental trial, the height, nude body mass, fat, and fat
Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa
Wayne W. Munson, Stanley B. Baker and Herberta M. Lundegren
A systematic strength training and structured leisure counseling program was investigated to determine the effects on self-esteem, leisure attitudes, leisure behaviors, and muscular fitness of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: strength training and leisure counseling (STLC), strength training and informal discussion (STD), or a no-treatment control group (NT). The experimental groups met 3 times a week, 90 minutes per session for 7 weeks. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences among the three groups on measures of self-esteem, leisure attitudes, or leisure behaviors. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated that there were no significant differences between the STLC and STD groups on muscular fitness, although both had significant pre- to posttest gains. The STLC and STD groups rated their treatments high on an attitude toward treatment measure, but neither group was significantly more positive about it than the other.
Sebastien Racinais, Martin Buchheit, Johann Bilsborough, Pitre C. Bourdon, Justin Cordy and Aaron J. Coutts
To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes.
Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31–33°C, humidity 34–50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp.
The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P < .05). In addition, plasma volume (PV, CO rebreathing, +2.68 [0.83; 4.53] mL/kg) and distance covered during both the YoYoIR2 (+311 [260; 361] m) and the STD (+45.6 [13.9; 77.4] m) increased postcamp (P < .01). None of the performance changes showed clear correlations with PV changes (r < .24), but the improvements in running STD distance in hot environment were correlated with changes in hematocrit during the heat-response test (r = –.52, 90%CI [–.77; –.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26).
Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.
Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen
Electrocardiogram (ECG) Raw RR Data for Guided and Nonguided Breathing Over 1-Minute Recordings 1-min measure TEE as a CV% 90% CI Std. difference 90% CI Qualitative inference Mean bias (ms) 90% CI PPG vs ECG, GB 3.8 3.1; 5.0 0.06 0.05; 0.08 Trivial 2.0 1.3; 2.7 H7 vs ECG, GB 6.1 4.9; 8.1 0.10 0.08; 0.13 Trivial −0
Christopher J. Palmer and Richard E.A. van Emmerik
rest as they wanted between shots, targets, and configurations to minimize fatigue effects. The four load configurations were unloaded (UL)—gun only (4.68 kg); standard (STD)—gun, vest, assault pack, and helmet (37.4 kg); upper extremity (UE) armor—standard configuration plus four UE armor plates
Dave H.H. Van Kann, Sanne I. de Vries, Jasper Schipperijn, Nanne K. de Vries, Maria W.J. Jansen and Stef P.J. Kremers
committed schools showed better results. As regards MVPA, stratified analyses [low (≤ 2) vs high (≥ 3) commitment] showed a positive though nonsignificant effect of the number of PSIs and high project commitment on MVPA at follow-up (std. β = 0.241; P = .16), but an increased number of PSIs and low
Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore
time, CI, IV, random effect model, and SD . Weight attributed to each study due to its statistical power. CI = confidence interval; IV = inverse variance; Std. = standardized. Regarding methods to prescribe RT intensity, sensitive analyses indicated a significant positive effect estimated on knee
Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
confidence interval; Std diff, standardized difference. Subgroup analysis of studies classified as randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials evidenced that this criterion influences the effectiveness of ST for improve TC levels. Randomized trials (40 studies) were associated with significant TC decreases
Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae
-up regression model. Table 2 Multiple linear regression model for elbow torque during fastball pitching Variable β Std. Error 95% CI for β p Value Lower Bound Upper Bound Ball velocity 0.052 0.016 0.044 0.187 .002* Stride length 0
Brian M. Wood, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Theodore W. Zderic, Bret A. Beheim and David A. Raichlen
Table 2 . Table 2 Fixed Effects From a Multilevel Regression Model (M2) of Step Length Fit to the Synchronized GPS and Accelerometry Data Term Estimate Std. Error p -value (Intercept) −0.0353 0.0237 .1537 Height (cm) 0.0003 0.0002 .0512 Walking speed (m/s) 0.5281 0.0097 <.001 Note . In this model, step