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Karsten Koehler, Thomas Abel, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Annika Dreuscher and Volker Anneken

Background:

Inactivity and overweight are major health concerns in children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods for the assessment of activity and energy expenditure may be affected negatively by the underlying disability, especially when motor function is impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the SenseWear Armband in adolescents with cerebral palsy and hemiparesis.

Methods:

Ten volunteers (age: 13.4 ± 1.6 years) were equipped with SenseWear Armbands on the hemiparetic and nonhemiparetic side of the body. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (speed range: 0.85 to 2.35 m/s). Indirect calorimetry served as independent reference method.

Results:

The mean error was between −0.6 and 0.8 kcal/min and there were no significant differences between SenseWear and indirect calorimetry at any speed. Differences between body sides in expenditure (mean: −0.2 to 0.0 kcal/min) and step count (mean: −3.4 to 9.7 steps/min) were not significant.

Conclusions:

The validity of the SenseWear Armband does not appear to be negatively affected by cerebral palsy during laboratory treadmill exercise. Future field studies are necessary to assess the validity and practicability of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in children and adolescents with physical disabilities.

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Joel D. Reece, Vaughn Barry, Dana K. Fuller and Jennifer Caputo

Background:

This study determined the validity and sensitivity of the SenseWear armband (SWA) during sedentary and light office duties compared with indirect calorimetry (IC).

Methods:

Participants (N = 22), 30 to 64 years of age, randomly performed 6 conditions for 5 minutes each (ie, supine, sitting no movement, standing no movement, sitting office work, standing office work, walking at 1.0 mph). Steady state for each activity (ie, average for minutes 4 and 5) was analyzed.

Results:

Energy expenditure (EE) for the SWA (1.58 kcal/min) and the IC (1.64 kcal/min) were significantly correlated, r(20) = 0.90, P < .001 and ICC = 0.90, 95% CI (0.699, 0.966). Correlation results for each condition varied in strength, r(20) = 0.53 to 0.83 and ICC = 0.49 to 0.81, but were all significant (P < .05). A significant interaction between measurement method and condition existed (P < .001). The SWA under predicted EE during standing with no movement, sitting office work, and standing office work.

Conclusion:

The SWA and IC EE rates were strongly correlated during sedentary and light activity office behaviors. However, the SWA may under predict EE during office work (standing or sitting) and when standing motionless, making it slightly less sensitive than IC.

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Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Barbara Pellegrini and Federico Schena

Background:

Accurate assessments of physical activity and energy expenditure (EE) are needed to advance research on positive and negative graded walking.

Purpose:

To evaluate the validity of 2 SenseWear Armband monitors (Pro3 and the recently released Mini) during graded walking.

Methods:

Twenty healthy adults wore both monitors during randomized walking activities on a motorized treadmill at 7 grades (0%, ±5%, ±15%, and ±25%). Estimates of total EE from the monitors were computed using different algorithms and compared with values derived from indirect calorimetry methodology using a 2-way mixed model ANOVA (Device × Condition), correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

There was no significant difference in EE between the 2 armbands in any of the conditions examined. Significant main effects for device and condition, as well as a consistent bias, were observed during positive and negative graded walking with a greater over- and under-estimation at higher slope.

Conclusions:

Both the armbands produced similar EE values and seem to be not accurate in estimation of EE during activities involving uphill and downhill walking. Additional work is needed to understand factors contributing to this discrepancy and to improve the ability of these monitors to accurately measure EE during graded walking.

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Holly R. Huddleston, Vaughn Barry and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The purpose was to characterize energy expenditure (EE) during academic subjects and activities during an elementary school day.

Methods:

Children in 2nd to 4th grades (N = 33) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 5 school days to measure EE. Teachers’ logs were compared with SWA data to extract information about EE throughout the day. Energy expenditure was also compared among grades.

Results:

After controlling for body mass, grade level was not a significant predictor of average daily caloric expenditure, F (2, 17.58) = .29, P = .75, ω2 = .05. When comparing activities throughout the day, relative rates of EE differed significantly, Wilks’ F (7, 23) = 52.2, P = .00, ηp 2 = .94, with PE and recess having higher EE. When academic subjects were compared (math, science, language arts), relative rate of EE was also significantly different, Wilks’ F (2, 30) = 4.31, P = .02, ηp 2 = .22. For the full sample, relative rate EE was higher in science than in language arts.

Conclusions:

The school day provides opportunity for EE for children. These data support the potential benefit of active instruction in language arts as a method to increase school day EE.

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Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I.P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Nathan A. Johnson, Andrew P. Hills and Glen M. Davis

Background:

The objective of this study was to determine whether doubly labeled water (DLW) and a multi-sensor armband (SWA) could detect the variation in energy expenditure incurred by a period of increased exercise (EXE) versus a period of high sedentary activity (SED), in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods:

Eight participants with SCI were submitted to 2 testing periods of energy expenditure assessment: 1) a 14-day phase during which sedentary living conditions were imposed and 2) a 14-day phase during which an exercise training intervention was employed. For each phase, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) were measured by DLW and SWA.

Results:

Mean TDEE assessed by DLW, was significantly higher during EXE versus SED (11,605 ± 2151 kJ·day-1 and 10,069 ± 2310 kJ·day-1). PAEE predicted by DLW was also significantly higher during EXE versus SED (5422 ± 2240 kJ·day-1 and 3855 ± 2496 kJ·day-1). SWA-predicted PAEE significantly underestimated PAEE measured by the DLW during SED and EXE.

Conclusion:

DLW is sensitive to detect variation in within-individual energy expenditure during voluntary increase in physical activity in individuals with SCI. SWA failed to detect statistically significant variations in energy expenditure between periods of high versus low activity in SCI.

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Nicola D. Ridgers, Karen E. Lamb, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown and Jo Salmon

rate) returned informed written parental consent to participate in the primary components of the data collection (accelerometry, survey, and log book). A subsample (72 boys and 77 girls) provided written informed parental consent to wear an additional monitor (SenseWear Armband; BodyMedia Inc

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

alignment in healthy adults: associations with BMI, body fat, caloric intake, and physical activity . Int J Obes . 2017 ; 41 : 203 – 209 . doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.194 10.1038/ijo.2016.194 11. Drenowatz C , Eisenmann JC . Validation of the SenseWear Armband at high intensity exercise . Eur J Appl

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Brittney S. Lange-Maia, Jane A. Cauley, Anne B. Newman, Robert M. Boudreau, John M. Jakicic, Nancy W. Glynn, Sasa Zivkovic, Thuy-Tien L. Dam, Paolo Caserotti, Peggy M. Cawthon, Eric S. Orwoll, Elsa S. Strotmeyer and for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Group

We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n = 328, age 78.8 ± 4.7 years) conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monofilament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [PASE] and SenseWear Armband). After multivariable adjustment, better motor latency was associated with higher PASE scores (160.5 ± 4.8 vs. 135.6 ± 6.7, p < .01). Those without versus with neuropathy symptoms had higher PASE scores (157.6 ± 5.3 vs. 132.9 ± 7.1, p < .01). Better versus worse SNAP was associated with slightly more daily vigorous activity (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 7.3 ± 0.7, p = .05). Other PN measures were not associated with PA. Certain PN measures were associated with lower PA, suggesting a potential pathway for disability.

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Alexander Allan Wetten, Marijka Batterham, Sze Yen Tan and Linda Tapsell

Background:

With physical inactivity inextricably linked to the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for validated methods that measure free-living energy expenditure (EE) within sedentary environments. While accelerometers enable these measurements, few studies have compared device accuracy in such settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative validity of the Actigraph, RT3 and SenseWear Armband (SWA).

Methods:

Twenty-three (11 male, 12 female) participants (age: 25.3 ± 6.3 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 2.7) wore 3 accelerometers at designated sites during a 4-hour stay in the Whole Room Calorimeter (WRC). Participants performed 2 10-minute bouts of light-intensity exercise (stepping and stationary cycling) and engaged in unstructured sedentary activities. EE estimated by accelerometers was compared with WRC EE derived from measurements of gaseous exchange.

Results:

The Actigraph and SWA both accurately estimated EE during the stepping exercise. EE estimated by the RT3 during stepping was significantly lower than the WRC value (31.2% ± 15.6%, P < .001). All accelerometers underestimated cycling and unstructured activity EE over the trial period (P < .001).

Conclusions:

The Actigraph and SWA are both valid tools for quantifying EE during light-intensity stepping. These results provide further valuable information on how accelerometer devices may be appropriately used.

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Robin P. Shook, Nicole C. Gribben, Gregory A. Hand, Amanda E. Paluch, Gregory J. Welk, John M. Jakicic, Brent Hutto, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

Background:

Subjective measures of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) rely on relative intensity whereas objective measures capture absolute intensity; thus, fit individuals and unfit individuals may perceive the same activity differently.

Methods:

Adults (N = 211) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 10 consecutive days to objectively assess sedentary time and MVPA. On day 8, participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to subjectively assess sitting time and MVPA. Fitness was assessed via a maximal treadmill test, and participants were classified as unfit if the result was in the bottom tertile of the study population by sex or fit if in the upper 2 tertiles.

Results:

Overall, estimates of MVPA between the IPAQ and SWA were not significantly different (IPAQ minus SWA, 67.4 ± 919.1 MVPA min/wk, P = .29). However, unfit participants overestimated MVPA using the IPAQ by 37.3% (P = .02), but fit participants did not (P = .99). This between-group difference was due to overestimation, using the IPAQ, of moderate activity by 93.8 min/wk among the unfit individuals, but underestimation of moderate activity among the fit participants by 149.4 min/wk.

Conclusion:

Subjective measures of MVPA using the IPAQ varied by fitness category; unfit participants overestimated their MVPA and fit participants accurately estimated their MVPA.