Utilizing liberal and radical feminist theory, this study critically investigated the lived status of Title IX in one fourth-grade physical education class (n = 21). Does Title IX emancipate female physicality, or does patriarchal gender differentiation continue to exclude females within the gender-integrated physical education setting? Data were collected over 14 weeks of fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, field notes, formal and informal interviews, and document analysis. Data analysis was structured by the indicator-concept model (Strauss, 1987). Results suggest that equal access to a common curriculum may not fully eliminate gender discrimination in physical education. A gender-based “we-they” dichotomy defines physical life in the context studied. This dichotomy was an ideologically driven, patriarchal distinction that largely awarded physical space to boys and situated girls as physically inferior. Feminist pedagogy is discussed as a strategy for extending gender-equitable teaching in physical education beyond the liberal definition of Title IX.
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt
federal legislation (Title IX), sport opportunities for US women increased beyond high school (eg, due to college scholarships), although the deadline for institutions to comply was much later. Moreover, recent financial incentives from US National Team/Olympic medal compensation and professionalism are
Gloria E. Napper-Owen, Susan K. Kovar, Kathy L. Ermler and Joella H. Mehrhof
Physical educators from randomly selected high schools (N = 180) in the AAHPERD Central District were surveyed via telephone regarding their required (9th grade) physical education programs. Four researchers scored the 180 instruments, and each instrument was scored independently with a 96% inter-rater reliability. For the entire sample, 52% of the activity units were team sports, 39% individual sports, 4% dance-gymnastics, and 4% adventure-cooperative-recreational. Of the 180 schools, 71% conducted programs in compliance with Title IX. Of the teachers interviewed, 88% of the females and 30% of the males taught outside their socially accepted areas, although they tended to conduct similar curricula. In general, schools delivered traditional multi-activity programs emphasizing team and lifetime sports, while 25% of the schools had programs with a primary emphasis on competitive, contact, male-oriented team activities. Thus, curricula tended to perpetuate the current socially constructed view of gender and physical activity.