The Dilemma Directional University (DU) is a state school that is an NCAA Division I (FCS) member for athletics. During the past 20 years, various self reports and evaluations of athletic programs have led to the awareness for the need to focus on the lack of full Title IX compliance. Currently
Chadron Hazelbaker and Matthew Martin
Michael A. Odio, Patty Raube Keller and Dana Drew Shaw
protections they owe their students. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 provides protections for students against sex-based discrimination, including sexual harassment, in programs receiving federal financial assistance in the United States ( U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights
Mary Jo Kane
This study examined the impact of Title IX on media coverage given to female athletes to determine if there has been a shift away from negative social stereotypes traditionally associated with women’s sports participation toward a more socially accepting view of the female athlete. A content analysis of feature articles within 1,228 issues of Sports Illustrated was undertaken for the years 1964-1987. These represented three 8-year time spans before (1964-71), during (1972-79), and after (1980-87) Title IX. In order to assess whether attitudes have changed toward female athletes as related to a Title IX timeline, amount and type of coverage were considered. Chi-square analyses revealed mixed results. There was a significant increase in the proportion of coverage given to women in athletic (e.g., professional golfer) versus nonathletic (e.g., swimsuit model) roles. However, feature articles about female athletes gave significantly more coverage to women in "sex-appropriate" sports such as tennis versus "sex-inappropriate" sports such as rugby, regardless of the Title IX time frame. Results are discussed in terms of challenging current beliefs that women’s athletics have gained widespread social acceptance following the enactment of Tide IX. Implications for practitioners and academics within sport management are presented.
James T. Morton
By Belanger Kelly. Published in 2016 by Syracuse University Press (461 pp., $44.95 ) In Invisible Seasons , Kelly Belanger offers an inside look into the early implementation of Title IX and its effects on a university, its athletic department, and the various stakeholders connected to both
Donald E. Agthe and R. Bruce Billings
A conceptual model was developed to measure the influence of football profits on meeting Title IX gender equity requirements in athletic aid and participation at NCAA Division I-A institutions. Teams in Division I-A of the NCAA play intercollegiate sports at the highest level of competition. Football profits are the largest source of fan based revenue at most Division I-A institutions. An empirical version of the model including football profit, other men's sports profits, conference membership, undergraduate enrollment, endowment, and the existence of the state funding was estimated for 93 institutions. These factors, except undergraduate enrollment and other men's sports profits, significantly influenced meeting the athletic aid standard. Endowment, state funding, and conference membership significantly influenced compliance with participation standard. In addition to the quantitative analysis, responses to an original survey of Division I conference commissioners added a qualitative dimension to this study.
John T. Wolohan and Sharon Mathes
With the increased attention on the issue of sexual harassment in our society, coaches and athletic administrators need to take a more proactive role in eliminating sexual harassment in the locker room. Although in sport, sexual harassment lawsuits have been rare, the number of reported cases of sexual harassment and misconduct among athletic coaches are on the rise. This article examines what constitutes sexual harassment in sport and what behavior of coaches may now be the bases of a lawsuit. The scope of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and its relevance to charges of sexual harassment in educational institutions will also be discussed. Next, the article reviews the evolution of sexual harassment case law as demonstrated by two cases. Finally, guidelines for avoiding sexual harassment will be reviewed.
This 2-part longitudinal study uses quantitative content analysis of newspapers to investigate gender dynamics in producing news on equality in sports. It analyzes differences in Title IX coverage by reporter gender to determine whether female journalists advocated more aggressively for women’s equality than their male counterparts did. The study’s first part uses content analysis of volume and placement of articles about Title IX, by journalist gender, and discusses the implications of how patterns of volume and placement have changed over time. The second part identifies advocacy and opposition frames used in the conflict over Title IX; applies content analysis of frames used, by journalist gender; and discusses implications of reporting differences and changes over time for equality. Evidence suggests that, first, social control; then a feminist perspective; and, most recently, a postfeminist worldview among female journalists influenced coverage of the law.
Barbara Barnett and Marie C. Hardin
Since Title IX was enacted in 1972, women’s advocates have considered how the law has affected female participation in sports, and critics have suggested that the law has unfairly denied opportunities to men. Studies have examined how journalists have covered Title IX and its consequences, yet few have looked at how advocacy groups have sought to influence coverage of the law. This textual analysis examines press statements published by the Women’s Sports Foundation from 2004 through 2009 and concludes that the organization used frames of community and transcendence in discussing women’s athletic participation. The foundation characterized community as essential to the support of women’s participation in sports and suggested that participation and achievement in sports were symbolic of women’s accomplishments in the larger society. The foundation also focused on fairness and equality as rationales for equitable distribution of resources and opportunities. Title IX was rarely mentioned in press statements.
Christina L.L. Martin
Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum
, athletic fund-raising and development, Title IX, and sport ethics. This case allows students to apply core sport management knowledge via a role-play exercise. We recognize the complex and institution-specific interplay of politics and other external factors, in addition to financial nuances, that are part