Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) reflects the capability of the cardiorespiratory system to transport oxygen during strenuous exercise ( 22 ) and is an objective measure of youth aerobic fitness ( 23 ). Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and
Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas and Dawn P. Coe
Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut
% to 78%, and ∼85% to 87% for 200-, 500-, and 1000-m events, respectively. 1 – 3 In 500- and 1000-m events, athletes are performing at 119% and 102% of VO 2 max, 2 respectively, and therefore, VO 2 max, maximal aerobic power, and lactate threshold are strongly related to performance. 4 – 6 Shorter
Anita M. Rivera-Brown, Miguel A. Rivera and Walter R. Frontera
This study examined the applicability of criteria for maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) in adolescents. Active females (n=38) and males (n=196) who were students at a sports-technical junior high school performed a treadmill Bruce protocol to volitional fatigue. The criteria for V̇O2max were R ≥1.0, HR ≥95% of predicted maximal for age, and an increase in V̇O2 ≤2.1 ml·kg−1·min−1 with an increase in workload. The first criterion was met by 97% of the females and 93% of the males, while 81% of the females and 75% of the males met the second criterion. Only 8% of the females and 13% of the males met the third criterion. Those who achieved a plateau showed higher HR at peak exercise compared to those who did not (204 ±7.0 vs. 200.6 ±7.2, P≤0.05). Our data indicate that a high proportion of adolescents exhibit subjective and objective indicators of maximal performance without showing a plateau in V̇O2. Age-specific criteria for V̇O2max should be developed.
Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira
runners (24.1 [4.3] y), healthy, uninjured, and trained (VO 2 max = 55.8 [4.7] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in this study. The participants had at least 3 years of experience in running and presented an average of training frequency of 6 times per week. In addition, all volunteers were well
confounding factor in affecting meaningful interpretations of aerobic power. Indeed, scaling VO 2 by lean body mass (LBM) rather than gross body mass is often opted for. Although it does not address the core issue inherent to allometric scaling, LBM scaling does nevertheless demonstrate common awareness that
Exercise Science , the review misses out on the opportunity to provide a more complete and holistic explanation for the fundamental question on most readers’ minds: Why do children have faster VO 2 kinetics than adults? The child–adult differential muscle activation hypothesis, first proposed and reviewed
Anita M. Rivera-Brown and Walter R. Frontera
This study examined the effect of different testing ergometers on V̇O2max, V̇O2max criteria achievement, and reliability of V̇O2max for V̇O2 plateau achievers and nonachievers. Twenty trained adolescents completed a treadmill, cycling, and rowing protocol twice. Of all subjects, 35%, 65%, and 45% did not achieve a plateau in either test (No P) during treadmill, cycling, and rowing, respectively. V̇O2max did not differ between tests for the total group or within the plateau and No P groups in any of the ergometers. A high reliability for V̇O2max was obtained in all ergometers. Our data suggest that Taylor’s criterion should not be a requisite for V̇O2max when testing trained adolescents.
Anthony D. Mahon and Melinda L. Marsh
This study examined the occurrence of a V̇O2 plateau at maximal exercise, and whether ventilatory threshold (VT) differend between children who do and children who do not achieve a V̇O2 plateau at maximal exercise. After performing a graded exercise test on a treadmill to assess VT and V̇O2max, the children were divided into a plateau group (n = 14) and a nonplateau group (n = 12). There were no differences with respect to the V̇O2 at VT (36.7 ± 3.4 vs. 37.9 ± 5.4 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and V̇O2max (51.6 ± 5.4 vs. 54.6 ± 3.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1) in the plateau and nonpiateau groups, respectively. The mean HR, RER, and RPE at maximal exercise were also similar between groups. These results indicate that VT and V̇O2max are similar in children regardless of the occurrence of a V̇O2 plateau at maximal exercise. Furthermore, a plateau in V̇O2 during a maximal exercise test is not mandatory for assessment of V̇O2max in this age group.
Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Erlend Hem, Svein Leirstein and Stephen Seiler
To quantify VO2max among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the evolution of VO2max among world-class players over an 18-y period was quantified.
Female players (N = 199, 22 ± 4 y, 63 ± 6 kg, height 169 ± 6 cm), including an Olympic winning squad, were tested for VO2max at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1989 and 2007.
National-team players had 5% higher VO2max than 1st-division players (P = .042, d = 0.4), 13% higher than 2nd-division players (P < .001, d = 1.2), and 9% higher than junior players (P = .005, d = 1.0). Midfielders had 8% higher VO2max than goalkeepers (P = .048, d = 1.1). No significant differences were observed across outfield players or different age categories. There was a trend toward lower relative VO2max across time epochs.
This study demonstrated that VO2max varies across playing-standard level in women’s soccer. No significant differences in VO2max were observed across outfield positions and age categories. Over time, there has been a slight negative development in VO2max among elite Norwegian soccer players.
Richard R. Suminski, Larry T. Wier, Walker Poston, Brian Arenare, Anthony Randles and Andrew S. Jackson
Nonexercise models were developed to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). While these models are accurate, they don’t consider smoking, which negatively impacts measured VO2max. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on both measured and predicted VO2max.
Indirect calorimetry was used to measure VO2max in 2,749 men and women. Physical activity using the NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), body mass index (BMI), and smoking (pack-y = packs·day * y of smoking) also were assessed. Pack-y groupings were Never (0 pack-y), Light (1–10), Moderate (11–20), and Heavy (>20). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effect of smoking on VO2max predicted by PASS, age, BMI, and gender.
Measured VO2max was significantly lower in the heavy smoking group compared with the other pack-y groups. The combined effects of PASS, age, BMI, and gender on measured VO2max were significant. With smoking in the model, the estimated effects on measured VO2max from Light, Moderate, and Heavy smoking were –0.83, –0.85, and –2.56 ml·kg−1·min−1, respectively (P < .05).
Given that 21% of American adults smoke and 12% of them are heavy smokers, it is recommended that smoking be considered when using nonexercise models to predict VO2max.