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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

maximal oxygen consumption, VO 2max ( Pescatello, Arena, Riebe, & Thompson et al., 2014 ), which involves having a participant/patient exercise until they reach a point of volitional fatigue. A VO 2max can be estimated using an easier, less taxing modality called a submaximal exercise test. Submaximal

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Courteney L. Benjamin, William M. Adams, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Gabrielle E.W. Giersch and Douglas J. Casa

[ M ] age = 19 years, standard deviation [ SD ] age = 1 year; M [ SD ] body mass = 58.8 [9.6] kg; M [ SD ] height = 168.4 [7.7] cm; M [ SD ] VO 2max  = 53.6 [5.6] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in this study, which took place during the 2016 NCAA cross-country season (August–December) in the

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Darlene A. Sedlock

This study is a comparison of both the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) between women and men. Eighteen (9 women, 9 men) physically active, young adult volunteers performed a moderate exercise in the early morning after having refrained from any strenuous activity for the previous 36-48 hr. Baseline oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured for the last 15 min of a 45 min seated rest. The 30 min cycle ergometer exercise was performed at 60% of each subject’s previously determined peak VO2. Subjects sat quietly in a chair during recovery until VO2 returned to baseline. The women had a significantly lower (t=4.22, p<0.01) resting VO2(0.22±0.03 L min−1) than the men (0.31±0.06 L min−1), however no significant difference was observed when resting VO2 was expressed relative to body weight. VO2 values during exercise were also significantly lower in the women compared to the men (t=4.85, p<0.01). Duration of EPOC was similar between the two groups (women=27.6±15.6, men=28.2±15.9 min). The 38% difference in magnitude of EPOC between the women (9.4±4.7 kcal) and men (13.0±4.6 kcal) was not statistically significant and approximated 5% of the exercise energy expenditure in each group. It was concluded that there was no sex difference in EPOC duration following moderate exercise conditions. Magnitude of EPOC was small for both groups, with women having a slightly lower value.

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Tracy Danner and Sharon Ann Plowman

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a preceding intense cycling bout on subsequent running economy in female duathletes and triathletes. Thirteen female duathletes and triathletes (age = 27.5 ± 3.36 yrs.) took part in three testing sessions: (a) measurement of running economy at 169, 177, 196, and 215 m·min−1 and running VO2 max; (b) remeasurement of running economy and measurement of cycling VO2 max; and (c) a 45 minute cycling bout at 70% of cycling VO2 max, immediately followed by measurement of running economy. Intraclass correlation coefficients between Day 1 and Day 2 running economy values ranged from 0.31 to 0.78. A systematic difference occurred at 169 m·min−1 only, with mean VO2 being higher on Day 1 than Day 2 (p<0.02). Based upon dependent t-tests, significantly higher running economy values (p<0.02) but not blood lactate concentrations (p>0.02) following the submaximal cycling bout compared to the control condition (mean of Day 1 and Day 2), at each of the four test velocities were found. Therefore we conclude that running economy was significantly impaired following a 45 minute intense cycling bout in female duathletes and triathletes, but lactate values remained constant.

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Christine L. Wells and Cynthia L. Shoenhair

Traditional medical advice to pregnant women in the U.S. has discouraged exercise. This restrictive attitude has denied many women an essential healthful behavior at an important period of their lives. Regular physical activity is a behavior to which the human body has adapted over millions of years of evolution. It is a behavior that is as vital, safe, and natural during pregnancy as at any other time. We maintain that healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies can perform regular upright moderate intensity exercise (50-65% VO2 max) as well as upright vigorous exercise (65-85% VO2max), without endangering themselves or compromising fetal well-being. We further maintain that they should be encouraged to do so regularly. Exercise prescription should be individualized, and not based on arbitrary standards.

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Ronnie Lidor and Gal Ziv

The main purpose of this article is to review a series of studies (N = 18) on the physical characteristics, physiological attributes, throwing velocity and accuracy, and on-court performances of female team handball players. Studies were selected from a computerized search in electronic databases (PubMed, SPORT Discus) as well as from a manual search. Five main findings emerged from this review: (1) a tall and heavy build was advantageous in team handball—mean height ranged from 165.9±.3 cm to 179±4 cm and mean body mass ranged from 62.4±6.2 kg to 72.0±6.3 kg; (2) VO2max values of female players were between 47-54 ml·kg-1·min-1; (3) throwing velocity was higher by as much as 11% in elite female players compared to amateur female players; (4) during 90% of playing time, heart rate (HR) was above 85% of HRmax, and the average VO2 was 79% of VO2max in female players; and (5) on-court distance covered averaged approximately 4 km and varied between 2-5 km in female players, depending on the playing position of the player. Most of the studies reviewed were cross-sectional, and only a few reported data on on-court performance. There is a need for additional manipulative studies to determine the influence of various training programs on game performance. In addition, conditioning programs that develop power and strength should be emphasized, and attention should be given to the player’s playing position and skill level.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

/day Intensity The rate of energy expended during the physical activity session or bout, usually in METs. • METs • %VO 2max • %VO 2peak • %VO 2 R • %HRmax • %HRR • Brisk walking, jogging, running • The Talk Test • A noticeable increase in heart rate or breathing • Speed/pace • RPE • Cadence (steps/min) Duration

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

amount of oxygen consumed (or energy expended) during 1 min at rest and is approximately 3.5 ml VO 2 · kg –1 · min –1 of oxygen for a 70-kg person ( Jette, Sidney, & Blümchen, 1990 ). However, the resting metabolic rate for persons with SCI has been shown to be 14–27% lower than for able

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Mark Urtel, Sara F. Michaliszyn and Craig Stiemsma

clients. • Apply an appropriate energy-cost, oxygen-cost (VO 2 ), and MET (metabolic equivalent) level of various activities to the client’s exercise prescription. • Develop strategies to incorporate teaching demonstrations regarding the use of a variety of cardiovascular-exercise equipment. • Determine