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Elena Fedotova

Morphological parameters (stature, weight, segment lengths, diameters, circumferences, body composition), functional characteristics (work capacity, respiratory performance, static strength of hand) and aspects of health- and skill-related fitness (explosive strength, speed, anaerobic and aerobic endurance, agility) of 141 well-trained young female field hockey players (10 to 18 y) were examined and analyzed. The main purpose of the investigation was to study growth trends of these parameters of female field hockey players and to analyze the character and feature of their development.

Standard anthropometric measurements were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics. Matiegka’s equations were used for computation of body composition’s parameters. Modification of the Harvard step test was used for estimation of physical capacity. Respiratory performance was evaluated using vitalograph. Static strength of the hands was obtained using a handgrip. Characteristics of health- and skill-related fitness were evaluated using the following test battery: standing broad jump, 30 m dash run, flying 30 m test, 210 yards shuttle run, 2000 m run, push-ups and 20 m zig-zag run.

Results of the study were as follows: the functional characteristics have the greatest total increase (about 108-144 %) during the age span considered (from 10 to 18 years). Stature and other length parameters increased about 18-20 %. The periods of the acceleration of increases in morphological parameters precede the periods of the sizable increases in functional parameters. Based upon the analysis of aspects of health- and skill-related fitness of players training and practicing in hockey has a beneficial effect on this group of characteristics. Based on the results of the study, the optimum periods for speed, strength and endurance training of female hockey players are exposed.

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

compete in boxing, whereas the body of students taking a physical education class at a university constitute a much different population. There are two main considerations governing the selection of boxing gloves for training. First, a heavier boxing glove decreases punch acceleration and reduces the peak

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% reduction in nipple acceleration during walking, when compared to their natural counterparts. During running, the B-Lite ® subglandular participant displayed decreased nipple kinematics, compared to their natural counterpart, and lower nipple kinematics compared to the B-Lite ® submuscular participant

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Howard N. Zelaznik

variability that results. Theoretically, these timing constraints are thought to require an individual to control a movement with a single positive acceleration profile followed by a single negative acceleration profile. On the other hand, because the Fitts task is spatially constrained, the negative

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John H. Challis

motion, but this is achieved by angular motion of the limbs about the joints. These motions of the limbs require angular acceleration. An object’s resistance to angular acceleration is a function of the object’s moment of inertia ( I ). The object’s moment of inertia is a function of the object’s mass

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Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow and John J. Jeka

velocity of the CoM and its distance from the ground contact point, or center of pressure (CoP). The relationship between these two points is that the horizontal acceleration of the CoM is proportional to the displacement between the CoM and the CoP ( Hof et al., 2005 ). We will restrict our description to

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

acceleration or a whip-lash mechanism (i.e., acceleration/deceleration) of the head ( McCrory et al., 2017 ). The impact causes shearing and stretching injuries to axons that impair neuronal function, resulting in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate), which creates an ionic imbalance

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Debra J. Rose

yet to be resolved. The lack of a gold standard against which to measure the time spent in MVPA, the different methods used to convert acceleration into MVPA, and the use of different body sites from which to collect the data were identified as important problems that needed to be resolved as the

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David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson and Dinesh John

than they were 20 years ago. In part, this is due to the lack of a gold standard and the difficulty in using accelerometers to obtain precise estimates of energy expenditure on a minute-by-minute basis. In addition, there has been a proliferation of methods used to convert movement acceleration into

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

-maturing boys’ body physiques had over the less-mature body physiques of late maturers (see Figure  1 ; Baxter-Jones & Helms, 1994 ; Beunen, 1989 ). Furthermore, it was suggested that the apparent acceleration in stature noted by previous researchers such as Adams ( 1938 ) or the slowing in growth noted by